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Subject: DNI-NEWS Digest - 8 Feb 1998 to 9 Feb 1998

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There are 5 messages totalling 814 lines in this issue.

Topics of the day:

1. Editor's Death Sentence Final
2. Freedom of expression keeps society alive
3. fwd: Slavery in Islam.
4. Iran/Turkey: Iranian asylum seekers at risk of imminent deportation to
IRAQ from Turkey
5. Iran's Islamic Regime Condemns German Man to Death, Iranian Woman to 99
Lashes

----------------------------------------------------------------------

Date: Mon, 9 Feb 1998 01:52:17 -0600
From: Arash Alavi <aalavi0@HOTMAIL.COM>
Subject: Editor's Death Sentence Final

[This is a courtesy copy of an article posted to Usenet via Deja News]

Iran's Top Court Ratifies Editor's Death Sentence

Reuters 08-FEB-98

TEHRAN, Feb 8 (Reuters) - Iran's Supreme Court has ratified
the death sentence for Morteza Firoozi, a prominent
newspaper editor convicted of spying, a newspaper reported
on Sunday.

Firoozi, a former editor-in-chief of the daily Iran News,
has been in custody on spying charges since May.

Iran has not named any country for which Firoozi was
alleged to have spied, but Iranian newspapers which last
year carried brief reports of his then-rumoured arrest had
said he was accused of spying for the United States.

Jomhuri Eslami newspaper said the Supreme Court had
ratified the death sentence and handed it down to relevant
authorities.

``Firoozi used to spy for three foreign countries,'' it
said without naming them.

It was not clear when the death sentence was passed. Death
sentences have to be ratified by the Supreme court before
they can be carried out.

There had been widespread rumours about what had happened
to Firoozi after his disappearance last year. But Iranian
newspapers quoted his colleagues at the English-Language
daily as saying he had gone to Britain for studies.

Iran News, which Firoozi helped set up in 1994, dropped his
name from its list of executives in October.

The daily has been attacked by hardline newspapers for
being too soft on the United States, even though it was
believed to often reflect the views of Iran's Foreign
Ministry.

Firoozi, a frequent commentator on Iranian politics, had
earlier served as editor-in-chief of Tehran Times, a major
English-language newspaper set up after the 1979 Islamic
revolution.

Iran in 1996 passed a law imposing the death sentence for
espionage in a variety of areas not covered by earlier
legislation, such as giving information to foreigners on
the country's social conditions.

The law singled out agents working for Iran's arch-foes,
the United States and Israel. ^REUTERS@ Reut07:00 02-08-98
SLUG: BC-IRAN-EDITOR

Copyright 1998 Reuters Limited.All rights reserved.

-------------------==== Posted via Deja News ====-----------------------
http://www.dejanews.com/ Search, Read, Post to Usenet

------------------------------

Date: Mon, 9 Feb 1998 02:01:05 -0600
From: Arash Alavi <aalavi0@HOTMAIL.COM>
Subject: Freedom of expression keeps society alive

[This is a courtesy copy of an article posted to Usenet via Deja News]

Iran News
February 8, 1998

Thinking and Criticism Complement Each Other, President

IRAN NEWS NATIONAL DESK TEHRAN - Encouraging the book
market makes ideas and criticism flourish, said President
Seyed Mohammad Khatami at the ceremonies marking the 15th
National Book of the Year, and the 5th Series of IRI World
Book of the Year Awards, held in Tehran yesterday. He said
a society is alive and progressing when grounds for
flourishing of talents and thoughts exit, thinkers feel
safe to express their opinions and criticism is tolerated.
Khatami said with the support given to book publication,
the annual Book of the Year Awards must take the necessary
steps to achieve the above three objectives. "Of course
publishing is a collective endeavor, and its progress needs
encouragement by all parties including the author, the
translator, the publisher, the type-setter, the publication
institute and the book vendor," said Khatami, adding that
by paying attention to book publication we are in fact
supporting all these categories of officials in the book
industry. He said the government and the Ministry of
Culture and Islamic Guidance have a heavy responsibility
toward publication and propagation of books as well as
criticism of published books and, by removing the
obstacles, should encourage thinkers to have an active
presence in the community. According to the President, from
the beginning of the Revolution a series of steps have been
taken to encourage the publication of books, but the nation
has a long way to go before it can achieve an optimum
status. He said holding such ceremonies prove the
attentiveness of the Revolution to thinkers and science.

He said thinking and criticism complement human life. "It
is through books that one can become familiar with the
works of outstanding scholars and thinkers such as
Aristotle, Plato, Ibne Sina, Kharazmi, Descrates, Kant,
etc.," said the President, adding that only such thoughts
that survive criticism and public comment endure. 17
selected books in translation, authorship and editing
categories received prizes in the 15th National Book of the
Year Awards, and three persons received top awards in the
5th Series of IRI World Book of the Year Awards.

Roshdi Rashed received top prize for editing "The
Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science." Josep
Casubberas and Jul Samso jointly received the top award for
editing "From Baghdad to Barcelona" and Dr. Pierre Briant,
the author of "Histoire de l'Empire Perse" was another top
winner.

Dr. Shirin Biani, the author of Religion and Government
During the Mongol Period" who had received 50 gold coins,
presented her prize to Iranian public libraries for
purchasing books. At the beginning, Minister of Culture and
Islamic Guidance, Ataollah Mohajerani, said he was proud to
serve the cause of book publication and researchers, and
has tried to take some steps to improvement of that
industry.

-------------------==== Posted via Deja News ====-----------------------
http://www.dejanews.com/ Search, Read, Post to Usenet

------------------------------

Date: Mon, 9 Feb 1998 10:29:46 +0100
From: Farhad Abdolian <farhad.abdolian@RSA.ERICSSON.SE>
Subject: fwd: Slavery in Islam.

WARNING BLASPHEMOUS LITERATURE.

CREDITS : aerisd@aol.com (AerisD) Anthropologist.

Our Holy Prophet Mohammad condoned slavery ( even practised it as he
owned concubines). Mohammad had two concubines Mariyah the coptic, and
Raihanah bint Zaid An-Nadriyah or Quraziyah.

A man once commented on the conversion of some African Americans [e.g
Mike Tyson] to Islam by saying "Why would they want to embrace the
religion that helped enslave them , and still participates in the slave
trade?"

In today's modern world slavery is a difficult topic for Muslims, and
like most of Islam's numerous injunctions this practise has also fallen
prey to neglect. Some Muslims , however , still follow a few convenient
Islamic ways :

--

February 8, 1998 Web posted at: 1:03 p.m. EST (1803 GMT)

MADHOL, Sudan (AP) -- Stacks of money pass from the Christian outsider
to the Muslim trader, an exchange anxiouslywatched by a 13-year-old girl
with diamonds of sweat on her brow.

The Sudanese trader, his lap buried by currency worth $13,200, waves
carelessly to free his merchandise -- 132 slaves.

Akuac Malong, the young Dinka girl, is among them. She has spent seven
years -- more than half her life -- enslaved by an Arab in northern
Sudan.

Her brilliant smile belies the beatings, near-starvation, mutilation [
the holy Prophet Mohammad SAW condoned and highly recommended Female
Genital Mutilation or circumcision of women ] and attempted brainwashing
she endured. "I thought it would be better to die than to remain a
slave," Akuac says.

Valuable war booty

Trafficking in humans has resurged with civil war in Africa's largest
and poorest country, said John Eibner of Christian Solidarity
International, a humanitarian group that bought Akuac's freedom.

For all but a decade since Sudan's independence in 1956, southern
rebels, mainly black Christians and followers of tribal religions, have
fought for autonomy from the national government in Khartoum, which is
dominated by northern Arabs. The southerners believe the north is trying
to impose Islam and the Arabic language and to monopolize Sudan's
wealth.

Since the rebellion resumed 14 years ago, fighting, famine and disease
have killed an estimated 1.5 million Sudanese -- more than died in the
genocides and civil wars in Rwanda or Bosnia. More than 3 million people
have fled or been forced from their homes.

Much of the fighting on the government side is done by local militias.
Unpaid, their bounty is as old as war itself -- slaves. Sudan's radical
Islamic leaders encourage soldiers to take slaves as their compensation,
according to United Nations investigators and the U.S. State Department.

Young women and children are the most valuable war booty.Eibner said old
people are beaten and robbed while young men are killed because they
cannot be trained into useful, harmless slaves.

"According to the Khartoum's regime ideology of jihad, members of this
resistant black African community -- be they men, women or children --
are infidels, and may be arbitrarily killed, enslaved, looted or
otherwise abused," Eibner said.

No claim on morality

The Sudanese government denies condoning slavery, insisting the practice
persists because holding prisoners for ransom is a tradition rooted in
tribal disputes.

No side has a claim on morality in this war. The rebel Sudan People's
Liberation Army has been accused of forcibly inducting teen-age boys
into its ragtag army. But the southern blacks do not take Arab prisoners
for slaves.

Paul Malong Awan, a regional rebel commander, said enslavement is a
government tactic to weaken the morale and military might of the south.

Many of the blacks taken away are Dinkas, a million-member tribe that is
the biggest ethnic group in southern Sudan. Dinkas are vulnerable
because they predominate in northern Bahr el Ghazal, a region that is
close to the front between north and south.

Christian Solidarity International estimates tens of thousands of black
slaves are owned by Arabs in northern Sudan. The Swiss-based charity has
made more than a dozen risky, clandestine bush flights to southern Sudan
to redeem 800 slaves since 1995, most recently in Madhol, 720 miles
southwest of Khartoum.

Some criticize its work.

Alex de Waal, of the London-based group African Rights, said that by
paying large sums to free slaves, the Swiss charity undercuts Dinkas
living in the north who do the same secretive work for a fraction of the
cost.

Eibner countered: "There is no evidence to suggest that our work has
undermined efforts to redeem abducted women and children.In fact, Dinka
elders encourage us to press ahead with our activities."

Gaspar Biro, a researcher for the U.N. Commission on Human Rights for
Sudan, has cited "an alarming increase" in "cases of slavery, servitude,
slave trade and forced labor" since February 1994.

"The total passivity of the government can only be regarded as tacit
political approval and support of the institution of slavery," he said.

A U.S. State Department report said accounts it received on the taking
of slaves in the south "indicates the direct and general involvement" of
Sudan's army and militias "backed by the government."

'She came back with the same spirit'

The centuries-old tensions between Arabs and blacks in Sudan are linked
to slaving expeditions by Arabs to the upper Nile, a trade that the 19th
century explorer David Livingstone called "an open sore on the world."

Akuac's mother, Abuong Malong, sobs when she sees her daughter for the
first time in seven years. "It's like she's been born again."

She recognizes her only from her straight, square teeth. "She was very
small when she was taken, her features have changed, but she came back
with the same spirit."

Recalling that traumatic day, Mrs. Malong says they were fetching water
when Arab militiamen on camels and horses thundered into their village,
Rumalong. The raiders began shooting at the clusters of mud and wattle
huts and rounding up cows and goats.

"I was running with Akuac for the trees when a horseman grabbed her,"
Mrs. Malong says. "I was afraid that if I chased the horseman, he would
kill me."

Akuac and her older brother were tied to horsebacks and taken north with
more than a dozen others from their village, a short walk southeast of
Madhol. The women and older children had to carry the booty of their
captors.

In Kordofan, Akuac was sold to an Arab who made her wash clothes, haul
water, gather firewood and help with cooking.

They treated us like cattle'

She survived on table scraps, and slept in the kitchen. "I was badly
treated," Akuac says.

Her master also tried to make her a Muslim -- taking her to mosque and
giving her the Arabic name of Fatima.

But Akuac says she maintained her Christian faith, praying and singing
hymns in secret and never forgetting her true name. "My name is my name
and nobody can change that."

She does bear scars -- in the local Muslim tradition, she was forcibly
circumcised with her master's daughters when she was 11.

"It was very brutal. It is strange to our culture," Akuac says. "The
master told me, 'If I don't circumcise you, I will have to kill you
because you will still hold the ideas of your people, and you will try
to escape.'"

Her heart is scarred, too. Her older brother, Makol, was killed two
years ago at age 13 while trying to escape.

Another returnee, Akec Kwol Kiir, who is in her 40s, says she was
repeatedly raped by four soldiers who took her north. She ended up in a
camp where slaves were bought and sold. "They treated us like cattle,"
she says.

Her Arab master insisted that she, too, be circumcised. She refused, and
was brutally slashed. Her ear is notched and her chin and neck scarred.

Kwol finally submitted. "Otherwise, they would have killed me. Because I
was a slave, they had the right to do whatever they wanted to me," she
says.

Akuac and Kwol have been brought back to Madhol along with 130 other
former slaves by a trader who calls himself Ahmed el-Noor Bashir.

Rescuer takes risks for pay

Slipping into a cowhide-strung chair beneath a shade tree, the
27-year-old dressed in a fine white cotton robe and a lose-fitting
embroidered cap denies he rescues slaves for the money.

"To others it may seem 6.6 million Sudanese pounds ($13,200) is a lot of
money. But how can you put a price on human life? I do it for
humanitarian reasons, not for the money," he says.

"My father is Arab but my mother is Dinka. When I see my mother's people
are suffering, I must do something."

But many families among the Dinka, particularly those who also lose
cattle and crops to raiders, cannot afford Bashir's price -- five cows
or the equivalent of $100 in cash for each slave returned.

He says he rescues slaves by buying some from owners, takes others from
wives jealous of their husbands' concubines [slaves can be used for sex
in Islam ; i.e. one can sleep with slave women without marrying them ],
and protects escapees who seek him out.

Though Bashir insists he loses money, he flaunts the Sudanese signs of
wealth -- on his feet are tasseled, leather loafers, on his wrist a
Casio watch, in his hand a shortwave radio.

Eibner says he doesn't begrudge the trader his money. "If this man is
caught, he's a dead man."

For that reason, the slave caravan traveled only by the light of a melon
slice of moon to reach Madhol.

The three-night walk wearied the 132 freed women and children. Infants
of Arab fathers were carried on their raped mother's backs. Years of
abuse are written in bruises and scars on their long, dust-caked limbs.
Some wear tattered rags; others are naked.

Yet Akuac's joy at freedom beams from her animated face and chocolatey
eyes. She sings a song of praise for the Sudan People's Liberation Army
and dances with family and friends to the twangs of a homemade, stringed
rababa.

The first Sunday after her release, Akuac worships beneath a tree with a
crucifix nailed to the trunk. Roman Catholic hymns are sung to the beat
of drums and the mewling of infants.

On Monday, she goes to school -- but is clearly bewildered as other
children practice writing letters in the dirt with sticks and add up
four-digit figures.

"I'll have to catch up," she says.

--

Slavery in Islam :

"The institution of slavery already existed in pre-Islamic Arabia, where
slaves were either captured on the battlefield or imported from Africa,
mostly from Ethiopia and the adjoining territories. In pre-Islamic
Arabia there were no laws to protect slaves, who were entirely at the
disposal of their masters.

Islam recognizes the institution of slavery. The master retains his
right of ownership over the slave but is enjoined to treat him kindly.

Legally the slave is inferior. The enslavement of Muslims was
discouraged by the early caliphs and made impossible by the jurists,
though the conversion of a slave to Islam did not thereby terminate his
slavery.

The presumption of the Muslim jurists was that the condition of slavery
was limited to those born of a slave mother and infidels captured in
war."

Sustaining Slavery in Islam :

"During the early centuries of Islam, at the time of the great
conquests, capture was the most important single source of recruitment.
Later it accounted for a smaller and smaller proportion of slaves. As
the frontiers were stabilized, the Holy Wars( deteriorated into civil
wars where the Divine Representatives or Caliphstried to subjugate
revolts ) no longer provided enough to meet the demand.

Frontier raids still yielded a certain number, but most of these were
ransomed or exchanged for Muslim prisoners of war. The activities of
Muslim corsairs in the Mediterranean, and wars and raids on the African,
Indian and Central Asian frontiers of Islam still brought in a supply,
but with the spread of the Islamic faith more and more of the enemies
captured in war were Muslims and therefore could not be enslaved."

Female Slaves, Concubines and victims of rape :

"Slave-women of many ethnic origins were recruited in enormous numbers
to staff the harems of the Islamic world -- as concubines or as menials,
the two functions not being clearly differentiated.

Sometimes slave-girls received education, and some famous and
exceptionally talented concubines figure in the history of Arabic
literature. Slaves were often trained and used as performers - as
dancers, singers or musicians, and some were even able to achieve fame
and fortune - fortune, that is, for their masters and sometimes even for
themselves after emancipation."

Institution of Slavery thrives under Islam :

"Later the most important method by which the slave population of the
Islamic empire was recruited was purchase. Slaves were bought on the
frontiers of the empire from merchants who had brought them from distant
lands. They were then moved by well-recognized routes from the frontiers
to the major slave distribution centres within the empire. These were in
North Africa, Egypt and southern Arabia for African slaves; in Derbend,
Aleppo, Mosul, Bukhara, and Samarqand for slaves coming from Europe and
the steppe lands.

The slaves were of very diverse origin, imported across all the
frontiers of the Muslim empire. White slaves were brought from Europe
via the Volga, Black Sea and Caspian routes, through the Byzantine
empire, and across the Mediterranean. Others came from the Caucasian
lands and from India.

By far the most important groups of slaves, however, were those who came
from the north and the south -- the Turkish peoples form the Eurasian
steppe, and the black peoples of Africa south of the Sahara. Both of
these were outside the Islamic Empire, and were therefore legally
subject to enslavement when captured. Between them they provided the
great bulk of the slave population of the Islamic empire."

Legal Rights of Slaves in Islam :

"Slaves were subject to legal disabilities. They were excluded from any
office involving jurisdiction; they could not give evidence; they were
valued less than freeman- as the penalty for an offence against a slave
is half the penalty for the same offence against a freeman. The slave
had few civil rights in matters of property, inheritance, or bequest.

He was however entitled to medical attention, food, and assistance when
old, and a qadi, or religious judge, could order an owner to manumit a
slave for failure to carry out these obligations. The owner was
forbidden to overwork his slave and was enjoined to treat him humanely.
A slave could marry with the consent of his master; in theory he could
even marry a free woman, though this in fact seems not to have happened.
A master could not marry a slave-girl unless he freed her."

FROM: The World of Islam, Bernard Lewis, p. 35. 1976.Thames & Hudson

Incidents of Slave Revolts under Islamic Rule :

"Slaves, mostly blacks from Africa, were extensively employed in certain
areas in large-scale economic projects. From quite an early date we hear
of gangs of black slaves employed in clearing the salt-flats of southern
Iraq. Their conditions were very bad and resulted in a series of slave
risings, one of which, in the III/9th century, for a time offered a
serious threat to the imperial capital itself. Other black slaves were
employed in the gold mines of upper Egypt and the Sudan, in the salt
mines of the Sahara, and elsewhere."

FROM: The World of Islam, Bernard Lewis, p. 35 1976 Thames & Hudson

Islam introduces the West to slavery :

Regarding the introduction of slaves into the European market in the
12th century, Immanuel Wallerstein writes:

"This started in the eastern Mediterranean in the twelfth century and
then moved westward. The Atlantic expansion was simply its logical
continuation. Indeed, E.E. Rich traces African slavery in Portugal back
to 1000A.D., the slaves being acquired by trade with Mohammedan (
Muslim) raiders."

p.44, _The Modern World System_ Immanuel Wallerstein, 1974. Academic
Press.

Also Read : _Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological
Perspectives_ S. Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds. U. Wisconsin Press, 1977.

Slavery in Islamic Saudia Arabia :

Women drawn into the racket are provided with documentation and air
travel, and told they will have to repay the costs out of future
earnings. When they arrive in the foreign country, their passports are
taken away and they are coerced into working as prostitutes , slaves and
concubines. Often the debt to employers continues to grow, trapping the
women in an endless cycle of abuse and dependence.

Traffickers and pimps routinely use threats and violence to prevent
women from going home or contacting authorities for help, the report
says. "Even when they are deported or return home voluntarily,
trafficked women may face serious danger from criminal rings with links
to their hometowns if they have not repaid their debts.

"Such are the conditions of indentured servitude that is epidemic in
Saudia Arabia.

Poor women and men from third world countries are told they'll have good
jobs in Saudi. They have to pay large fees to get paperwork finalized,
and upon arrival they're told they can't start work immediately, or
there is some trouble with their paperwork, so they need to borrow money
from the Sponsor, or can't get their income for awhile. By being in debt
to a Saudi you CANNOT LEAVE SAUDI ARABIA because the sponsor must sign
papers in the Exit Visa process saying there is no obligation.
Consequently, once a worker enters Saudi he/she is at the mercy of the
Saudi sponsor.

It has been shown repeatedly by human rights organizations, journalists,
social scientists that this indentured servitude often expands to
include sexual expoloitation of the workers. It has been shown that it
is common for the Saudi males of the household to regard the foreign
"maid" as their sexual outlet, fathers and sons often using the same
maid for their pleasure.

I have first hand knowledge that this is, indeed, the case, along with
other horrendous human rights abuses in Saudi. It is a fact that upon
arrival all female workers must undergo a pregnancy test. What is
shocking is the number of women who go to clinics to receive
contraception, or to have pregnancy tests later.

Also...the trade in children in Saudi is so disgusting I can barely
counter my nausea enough to mention it. Children are snatched off the
streets, and sometimes right out of the arms of the mother (see Saudi
Ministry of Health Emergency Bulletins of 1994) and sold into slavery,
used as sex slaves, servants, OR -- used as ORGAN DONORS.

If you could get into the very protected Ministry of Health documents
you would find numerous records of children being kidnapped for their
organs (e.g. kidneys) and *sometimes* dumped on the street where they
were taken several days later, with their incisions infected, and the
children close to death. "- aerisd@aol.com (AerisD) Anthropologist.

NOTE : the author as a Muslim and as someone who grew up in the Middle
East would like to confirm the above.

A. Shiraz Siddiqui assiddiq@coewl.cen.uiuc.edu -- Geradewegs aus
meinem automatischen Cookie-Generator:

"The Arabs of the desert are the worst in Unbelief and hypocrisy, and
most fitted to be in ignorance..."- Holy Quran 009.097 translated by
Yusuf Ali

Disclaimer: Any errors in spelling, tact, or fact are transmission
errors. -
#====================================================#
# Farhad Abdolian, farhad.abdolian@rsa.ericsson.se #
# HW Design Engineer @ Ericsson Radio Access AB #
# Dept. B/UF, Box 11, S-164 93 Stockholm, Sweden #
# Phone +46-8-404 82 91 Fax: +46-8-764 18 58 #
#====================================================#

------------------------------

Date: Mon, 9 Feb 1998 22:34:01 +0100
From: "Iranian Refugees Alliance Inc. (by way of Farhad Abdolian
<farhad@algonet.se>)" <irainc@IGC.APC.ORG>
Subject: Iran/Turkey: Iranian asylum seekers at risk of imminent deportation to
IRAQ from Turkey

Feburary 8, 1998
URGENT ACTION NEEDED
Twelve Iranian asylum seekers in Turkey are at risk of imminent
deportation to IRAQ and about 18 more are at risk of deportation.

Twelve Iranian asylum seekers were transferred to the Turkish/Iraqi
border and are currently detained by the Turkish police in Habur. About
18 others are in detention in Ankara's Foreigners Section of the
Directorate General of Security.

All of the detained asylum seekers are members of the Iranian group
which staged a sit-in in 1995 at the offices of the United Socialist
Party in Ankara in protest to their deportation orders. Since July
1996, the group has been granted "humanitarian status" by the Turkish
Branch of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR),
which has entitled them to protection against deportation to Iran. As a
result of this status, UNHCR has been periodically negotiating with the
Turkish authorities to extend the stay permits of the group's members.

According to reports from the Human Rights Association in Ankara, about
34 members of this group were arrested on Wednesday, February 4, 1998
after staging a protest action in front of the UNHCR office in Ankara.
The protest was related to the Turkish authorities' decision not to
renew the stay permits of some members of the group and to deport them
to Northern Iraq. Twelve were immediately transferred to the Iraqi
border and the rest kept in detention.

Since their arrest, security officials in Ankara and Habur have refused
to give any information about the detainees. The Ankara office of the
Human Rights Association has expressed to the Iranian Refugees'
Alliance that the secrecy surrounding these events is a matter of grave
concern.

Some of the detainees in Habur who have managed to contact their
friends and relatives by telephone have said that they were handed over
to the Northern Iraqi border officials (The Kurdistan Democratic
Party), but were returned to Habur's police station because the Iraqi
officials have refused to accept them. Subsequently they have been kept
in detention until further decision by the Interior Ministry. The
detainees have reported that Turkish border officials have threatened
them with deportation to Iran if Northern Iraq does not accept them.
Attempts to contact the detainees have failed as of the evening of
February 7, 1998. It is not clear whether or not they have been moved
to the Iranian border, back to Ankara or are kept in incommunicado
detention.

The other 18 or so are still in detention in Ankara. Although it seems
that members of this group have been given extensions of stay in Turkey
until the end of March 1998, information they have sent out from
detention through short telephone calls suggest that they are also
threatened with deportation in small groups.

Recent massive round ups and expulsions of illegal foreigners by the
Turkish police have been cause for International Human Rights
organizations and the UNHCR to express grave concern in regard to
protection of refugees. It has long been feared that Turkey may be
expelling Iranian asylum-seekers and refugees under a security
agreement with Iran which reportedly includes the reciprocal exchange
of opposition activists. A recent Amnesty International report
highlights several cases of Iranians, even some who were recognized by
the UNHCR as refugees, who were detained by the Turkish authorities and
sent back to their country Iran.

Due to the operation of Iranian agents in Northern Iraq and existing
alliances between Iraqi Kurdish groups and Iran, many Iranian
dissidents have been targeted for assassination. Several have been
abducted and forcibly returned to Iran, where they have been reportedly
imprisoned and even executed. Conflict between Kurdish factions and
human rights violations by both groups as well as instability, violence
and atrocities due to invasions and air attacks by Turkey, Iran and
Baghdad have further exposed Iranian refugees and exiles in Northern
Iraq to the danger of getting caught in the middle.

International standards require that no one be returned to countries
where they may risk persecution or are subject to torture or inhuman or
degrading treatment or punishment. By granting "humanitarian status" to
these persons, the UNHCR has recognized the existence of such risk for
the concerned group vis--vis Iran. By deporting them to Northern Iraq
Turkey is exposing them to indirect deportation to Iran as well as
jeopardizing their physical security.

We ask all concerned organizations to immediately express their concern
to the Turkish authorities and urge the Turkish government to:

stop the deportations immediately and allow all such asylum seekers to
stay in Turkey while arrangements are made for their resettlement in a
third country.

Please send your letters to:

Minister of the Interior:
Mr. Murat Basesgioglu [Salutation: Dear Minister]
Icisleri Bakanligi Ankara, Turkey
Faxes: (90 312) 417-2390 or 418-1795

Minister of Foreign Affairs:
Mr. Ismail Cen [Salutation: Dear Minister]
Ministry of Foreign Affairs Desisleri Bakanligi Ankara, Turkey
Fax: (90 312) 287-1886

copies to:
Representative : Barry Rigby
UNHCR-Branch Office in Turkey
17 Abidin Daver Sokak Cankaya Ankara 06680 Turkey
Fax: (90 312) 438-2702

Ambassador Nuzhet Kandemir
Embassy of the Republic of Turkey
1714 Massachusetts Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 USA
Fax: 202-296-5660

or the the Turkish Embassy in your country

For more information please contact Iranian Refugees' Alliance, Inc.
Cooper Station P.O.Box 316 New York NY 10278-0316 USA Tel/Fax:
212-260-7460 e-mail: irainc@irainc.org URL: www.irainc.org
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Back ground Information
on the Situation of Iranian refugee in Northern Iraq

There are now more than 3,000 Iranian refugees in northern Iraq who are
anxiously waiting for resettlement in a third country because effective
protection is lacking for them in that region. This is not only due to
lack of any domestic provisions for refugees in Iraq in general but
also due to indisputable presence of Iranian government security and
intelligence agents in the region and existing political alliances
between the Iraqi Kurdish parties and this government.

Evidence concerning forcible return of Iranian dissidents in northern
Iraq including both refugees who have had disassociated themselves with
the political parties and those who are active members of political
organizations indicate that the threat is real, indiscriminate and
widespread. More than 200 are reported to be injured or dead since 1991
as a result of attacks and attempts of asssaniation by Iran's forces.
More than a dozen refugees and exiles are reported to be abducted by
Iraqi Kurdish Islamists and IranOs agents and handed over to the
Iranian government in the past two years. In 1997, an Amnesty
International report indicated that two of the refouled refugees were
executed by Iranian authorities. The Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iran
has reported that seven members of its organization are still in
incommunciadeo after a year since they were handed over to the
authorities.

Furthermore, Iraqi Kurdistan suffers from internal political unrest and
from outbursts of violence, intra-Kurdish fighting and external
invasions. There is a consistent pattern of gross violations of human
rights committed by the ruling parties and the administration, as a
result of which many Iraqi Kurds are seeking refuge in western
countries. Since Amnesty International's 1995 report which accused the
ruling and other Kurdish parties of gross human rights abuses as brutal
as anything Baghdad ever carried out in its genocidal campaigns against
the Kurds, the situation has worsened. Instability, violence and
atrocities have aggravated due to invasions and air attacks by Turkey,
Iran and Baghdad. Many innocent civilians continue to be caught in the
middle.

Conditions of refugee camps in which Iranian deportees are forced by
the Kurdish adminitration in Northern Iraq to to live in are reproted
to be deplorable and harrowing. These reports have reached the Iranian
Refugees Alliance by some members of the group of more than 80 Iranian
refugees who were deported last year by the Turkish authorities and
after spending several months in those camps were resettled in third
countries by the UNHCR. Apart from insufficient food, water, heat,
sanitation, medicine and doctors inside the camps, refugees were
exposed to serious security threats. These camps accommodated members
of the Iraqi Shi'a Supreme Council of the Islamic Revolution, which is
a group in Iraq controlled by Iran. As a result, Iranians refugees
constantly feared that Iran may attempt to kill, poison or abduct them
with the assistance of the SCIR members. In spring 1997, Turkish troops
set up a base in a yard adjacent to one camp site in Zawita, which
accomodates single refugees, exposing them to being caught in the
middle of the conflict between the Turkish military and the Kurdish
rebels from Turkey.
END
+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Iranian Refugees' Alliance, Inc. |
| is a non-profit organization in the US assisting |
| and advocating on behalf of Iranian refugees and |
| asylum seekers nationally and internationally. |
| For more information, please contact us. |
| |
| IRA Inc. ******************************* |
| Cooper Station * FAX: 212-260-7460 * |
| POBox 316 * Voice: 212-260-7460 * |
| New York, New York 10276-0316 * e-mail: irainc@irainc.org * |
| U.S.A. * URL: http://www.irainc.org * |
| ******************************* |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------+

------------------------------

Date: Mon, 9 Feb 1998 17:29:38 EST
From: CHAIRNGO@AOL.COM
Subject: Iran's Islamic Regime Condemns German Man to Death,
Iranian Woman to 99 Lashes

Iran's Islamic Regime Condemns German Man to Death and Iranian Woman to 99
Lashes

Helmut Hofer, a German businessman, has been sentenced to death by an Iranian
court for allegedly having sexual relations with an Iranian woman, according
to Amnesty International. Information is not available concerning the
identity of the Iranian woman allegedly involved. Media reports indicate that
she may have been sentenced to 99 lashes.

A spokesman for the German Foreign Ministry has confirmed that Hofer was
arrested in Tehran on 27 September 1997 and sentenced to death on 26 January
1998 for "forbidden relations between a non-Muslim and a Muslim." The Iranian
Foreign Ministry reportedly declined to specify the charges against him or the
sentence passed. Hofer is reportedly being held in Evin Prison in Tehran.

This news follows a wave of reports of arrests and stonings imposed by the
Islamic government as punishment for engaging in voluntary sexual relations.

The Committee for Humanitarian Assistance to Iranian Refugees (CHAIR), The
International Federation of Iranian Refugees (IFIR) and the International
Campaign in Defense of Women's Rights in Iran-US Branch call for condemnation
of the Islamic regime in Iran for its continued violations of human rights,
including the death penalty, stoning and flogging.

------------------------------

End of DNI-NEWS Digest - 8 Feb 1998 to 9 Feb 1998
*************************************************