Date: Feb 14, 1999 [ 12: 1: 19]

Subject: DNI-NEWS Digest - 12 Feb 1999 to 13 Feb 1999

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There are 15 messages totalling 716 lines in this issue.

Topics of the day:

1. fwd: AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL URGENT ACTION
2. A German murdered in Iran
3. The brother of Khamenei suffers fractured skull in attack
4. Iran's Revolutionary Guards say fatwa against Rushdie irrevocable
5. German bank official murdered in Iran
6. Suspected German national shot dead in Iran
7. Iranian opposition denounces candidate ban for first municipal elections
8. Iran's president congratulates king
9. Iranian FM visits Libya
10. Brother of Iranian leader assaulted
11. Iranian president hails Assad's election
12. Dissident Iranian ayatollah dies of stroke (2)
13. Iran warns Azerbaijan over NATO forces
14. Fwd: Quote counterquote

----------------------------------------------------------------------

Date: Sat, 13 Feb 1999 11:41:17 +0100
From: Farhad Abdolian <farhad@PANJERE.NET>
Subject: fwd: AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL URGENT ACTION

+------------------------------------------------------
+ AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL URGENT ACTION BULLETIN
+ Electronic distribution authorised
+ This bulletin expires: sending appeals after
+------------------------------------------------------

PUBLIC AI Index: MDE 13/03/99
12 February 1999

EXTRA 21/99 Death Penalty / Amputation

IRAN Jamileh (f), aged 38
Zahra (f), aged 30

Amnesty International is gravely concerned by the sentences
reportedly handed down to the two above-named women after they
were convicted of theft and murder by a Tehran court.

Jamileh has reportedly been sentenced to death by hanging and the
amputation of her hand while Zahra has been sentenced to the
amputation of her hand and a 15-year prison sentence.

Jamileh and Zahra, both described in newspaper reports as being
drug addicts, apparently broke into the Tehran home of a seventy
year old woman whom they strangled to death before making off
with her gold jewellery.

While recognising the right of all states to bring to justice
anyone suspected of a recognizably criminal offence, Amnesty
International unconditionally opposes the death penalty, which
contravenes the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) -
Article 3: "Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security
of person" - which the government of Iran has committed to
uphold.

The organization also opposes judicial punishments such as
amputation, which constitutes cruel, inhuman and degrading
punishment, and as such is forbidden under the International
Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), to which Iran is
a state party.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Amputations (as well as flogging) were resumed as a punishment
for theft in 1996 by the State Prosecutor, Ayatollah Moghtadai,
in an attempt to halt rising crime rates.

+-----------------------------------------------------------+
+ Supporters of Amnesty International around the world are
+ writing urgent appeals in response to the concerns
+ described above. If you would like to join with them in
+ this action or have any queries about the Urgent Action
+ network or Amnesty International in general, please
+ contact one of the following:
+
+ Ray Mitchell, ua@amnesty.org.uk (UK)
+ Scott Harrison, sharrison@igc.apc.org (USA)
+ Guido Gabriel, ggabriel@amnesty.cl.sub.de (Germany)
+ Marilyn McKim, mmckim@amnesty.ca (Canada)
+ ua@aibf.be (Belgium)
+ Anne Nolan, ua@amnesty.iol.ie (Ireland)
+-----------------------------------------------------------+

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 13 Feb 1999 18:20:14 +0000
From: "a.abdi" <a.abdi@BTINTERNET.COM>
Subject: A German murdered in Iran

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<html> =

<pre> =
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<br>thr 058 =
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<br>murder-german =
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<br> =1Dfm spokesman expresses deep sorrow on killing of german national=
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<br>tehran, feb. 13, irna -- spokesman of iran's foreign ministry hamid =
=

<br>assefi said here saturday that the foreign ministry is deeply sorry =
=

<br>for the killing of a representative of the deutsche bank in iran. =
=

<br> he expressed his condolences to the bereaved family of the german=
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<br>national and said the foreign ministry is also conducting a querry =
=

<br>into the unhappy incident and is in constant contact with the german =
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<br>embassy in tehran in this respect. =
=

<br> heinrich lembirt heimes was taken hostage and later killed by a =
=

<br>yet unknown assailant who was being pursued by the law enforcement =
=

<br>forces saturday morning on qom-kashan road. =
=

<br>hr/hm =
=

<br>end =
=

<br>::irna 13/02/99 21:12 =

<br>=00 =

<br></pre></html>
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------------------------------

Date: Sat, 13 Feb 1999 14:36:00 -0500
From: Mehran Sam <mehran_sam@HMS.HARVARD.EDU>
Subject: The brother of Khamenei suffers fractured skull in attack

>
> TEHRAN, Feb 13 (AFP) - The brother of Iran's supreme leader
> Ayatollah Ali Khamenei has been beaten up by religious hardliners in
> the latest attack on radical opponents of conservatism, press
> reports said Saturday.
> The radical newspaper Salam said that Hadi Khamenei, a younger
> brother of the ayatollah, was attacked in the Mohammadieh mosque in
> the holy city of Qom on Thursday as he was getting ready to make a
> speech.
> He was treated in hospital for his injuries but was able to go
> home.
> Hadi Khamenei is an adviser to Iran's reforming President
> Mohammad Khatami and has attracted controversy for taking political
> positions different from those of his brother, a religious
> conservative.
> Salam said the attackers broke windows in the mosque, hauled
> down portraits of the president and shouted "Death to Khatami".
> Hadi Khamenei is also the publisher of the radical daily
> Jahan-e-Islam, which supports Khatami.
> The assault was the latest in a series of attacks on radicals,
> Salam said.
> Rasul Montajabnia, a close associate of Hadi Khamenei, was
> beaten up in similar circumstances on Thursday evening in Qom, the
> newspaper said.
> Last week, hardliners prevented Salam's chief editor Abbas Abdi
> from speaking at a political rally in Qom.
> Abdi, one of the organisers of the hostage-taking in the US
> embassy in Tehran in 1979, has been singled out by hardliners since
> he held a meeting in Paris in July with one of his former captives,
> the American diplomat Barry Rosen, the newspaper said.
>
> Siahkal News

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 13 Feb 1999 22:51:07 GMT
From: Farhad Abdolian <farhad@ALGONET.SE>
Subject: Iran's Revolutionary Guards say fatwa against Rushdie irrevocable

TEHRAN, Feb 13 (AFP) - The death sentence issued against British
writer Salman Rushdie by the late Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini is
irrevocable, Iran's elite Revolutionary Guards force said in a
statement Saturday.
The statement, carried by the IRNA news agency, said Khomeini's
verdict was "based on Islam" and could not be retracted.
"The apostate Salman Rushdie will eventually be burnt in the
fire of Moslems' wrath," the elite force said.
The statement blasted "certain western countries and false
advocates of freedom of thought and human rights" for a two-year
"disinformation campaign to make world people and Moslems believe
that Iran has backed down from its stances towards the apostate
author Salman Rushdie."
Khomeini issued his fatwa, or religious decree, on February 14,
1989, sentencing Rushdie to death for his satirical novel "The
Satanic Verses" which he said "offended the sacred values of
Moslems."
The Revolutionary Guards issue a statement every year on the
anniversary of the fatwa, confirming its validity.
Last September Iranian Foreign Minister Kamal Kharazi said the
new moderate government would do nothing to implement the death
sentence and distanced Khatami's administration from any reward
offered for Rushdie's murder.
As a result of the improved climate after this statement, London
and Tehran announced that they would raise their relations to
ambassadorial level, from that of charge d'affaires.
That agreement has not yet been implemented.
Khatami's moderate government, under pressure from conservative
hardliners, has been obliged to reaffirm the decree is irrevocable
despite its commitment not to implement it.

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 13 Feb 1999 22:51:11 GMT
From: Farhad Abdolian <farhad@ALGONET.SE>
Subject: German bank official murdered in Iran

TEHRAN, Feb 13 (AFP) - A German official with the Deutsche Bank
in Tehran was shot dead Saturday by a gunman who was later killed by
police, the official news agency IRNA reported.
Citing an "informed" police source, the agency said the gunman,
who was being pursued by police, stopped a car belonging to the
German embassy along a motorway south of Tehran.
It said he took the German driver hostage and tried to flee.
The gunman then killed the man, whom the agency named as
Heinrich Lembirt Heimes, the Deutsche Bank's Tehran representative.
IRNA had reported earlier that a man, "apparently a German
national," had been murdered along the Kashan-Qom highway south of
Tehran.
Police caught up with the gunman and he was killed in a shootout
along with one policeman, the agency said.
The Iranian foreign ministry expressed its "profound regret" at
the death and said it was carrying out an investigation into this
"unfortunate affair," IRNA said.
The ministry added that it was in contact with the German
embassy here.
Relations between Germany and Iran have been strained for nearly
two years, since a German court accused the Iranian regime of
responsibility for the murders of Kurdish political opponents in
Berlin in 1992.
They deteriorated further a year ago when German businessman
Helmut Hofer was sentenced to death for an alleged affair with an
Iranian woman, in violation of Islamic law banning sexual relations
between a Moslem woman and a non-Moslem man.
The Iranian authorities say the Hofer case is purely a matter of
law and is now being considered by the country's supreme court.
Iran this week rejected Germany's demand for "greater clarity"
in the Hofer affair before sending a top envoy to Tehran.

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 13 Feb 1999 22:51:17 GMT
From: Farhad Abdolian <farhad@ALGONET.SE>
Subject: Suspected German national shot dead in Iran

TEHRAN, Feb 13 (AFP) - A man thought to be a German national was
kidnapped and shot dead in Iran on Saturday after a gunman stopped
his car on the side of a major highway, the official IRNA news
agency said.
The gunman forced all passengers out of the victim's car before
kidnapping him and then shooting him after a brief struggle, it
said, adding that the dead man was "apparently a German national."
While trying to escape, the gunman then killed a policeman
before being shot dead himself by security forces, IRNA said without
elaborating.
The incident took place on the highway south of Tehran running
from Kashan to the holy city of Qom.
The German embassy could not be reached for comment.

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 13 Feb 1999 22:51:22 GMT
From: Farhad Abdolian <farhad@ALGONET.SE>
Subject: Iranian opposition denounces candidate ban for first municipal
elections

TEHRAN, Feb 13 (AFP) - The growing row over Iran's first-ever
municipal elections escalated Saturday as opposition leaders
condemned the banning of their candidates by hardliners on a
selection committee.
"It's a kind of inquisition and we condemn it. President
(Mohammad) Khatami should intervene," said Ibrahim Yazdi, head of
the banned but tolerated Freedom Movement of Iran (FMI), a leading
opposition group.
Khatami should "respect his electoral commitments and support a
true people's participation in power," he said.
Yazdi denounced the "pre-selection" of candidates and their
"arbitrary elimination for ideological reasons."
"The municipal elections are a vitally important test for the
nation as well as a test of the sincerity of the regime's leaders,"
he told reporters.
But he added that the Independent and Nationalist Front (INF),
an umbrella opposition grouping that includes the FMI, would not
call for a boycott of the February 26 polls and urged eligible
voters to take part.
"We will participate actively even if they reject our
candidates," he told reporters at a press conference ahead of
Monday's publication of a final list of approved candidates.
The landmark vote is considered the Islamic regime's first great
test in local democracy, but it has provoked tension between
conservatives and reformers as both sides seek to consolidate their
local power base ahead of next year's parliamentary elections.
The disqualification of moderate and left-wing candidates has
sparked a war of words between Khatami supporters and his
conservative opponents.
Khatami established an arbitration committee to quell the
dispute, but local press reports say the end result has been only
that his reformist supporters have been approved as candidates while
other opposition candidates have been banned.
Newspapers have said banned candidates must offer a written
pledge of allegiance to the constitutional principle that the nation
is ultimately guided by its supreme spiritual leader, currently
hardliner Ayatollah Ali Khamenei.
Moderate Interior Minister Abdulvahed Musavi-Lari, whose
ministry is responsible for running the elections through executive
committees around the country, has also attacked the move to bar the
candidates as "arbitrary."
Vice President Hassan Habibi said in last Sunday's Tehran Times
that "members of illegal organisations and parties cannot run for
election," a comment that has not yet been given official backing.
Iran's late revolutionary leader, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini,
slammed the FMI as too liberal and pro-Western, and Habibi --
himself a moderate -- said it should be judged on the basis of the
ayatollah's remarks.
Moderates are concerned that vetting candidates will dampen
public enthusiasm and lead to a low turnout, particularly among the
country's 30 million or so youngsters who played a decisive role in
bringing Khatami to office in 1997.
About 330,000 candidates, including 5,000 women, have been
approved so far to stand in elections for 200,000 council seats.

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 13 Feb 1999 22:51:28 GMT
From: Farhad Abdolian <farhad@ALGONET.SE>
Subject: Iran's president congratulates king

AMMAN, Jordan, Feb. 13 (UPI) -- Signaling Tehran's intention to
improve relations with Amman, Iranian President Mohammad Khatami has
offered his congratulations to Jordan's new king, Abdullah Bin al-
Hussein, on his assumption of the Hashemite throne.
A royal court statement said today that Khatami sent a cable of
congratulations to King Abdullah, who became monarch Sunday after the
death of his father, King Hussein.
It said the Iranian president ``affirmed the importance of enhancing
bilateral ties and expressed hope that relations between the two Muslim
countries will be further promoted for the common interest of both
countries.''
Tehran was angered by statements on Iran made by Abdullah in the
London-based al-Hayat newspaper after King Hussein named him heir to the
throne, replacing Hussein's brother, Prince Hassan, who had been crown
prince since 1965.
Prince Hassan had played a major role in improving ties between the
two countries after they had suffered when Jordan backed Iraq during the
1980-88 Iraq-Iran war.
Abdullah, who lacks political experience, was quoted in the Saudi-
owned al-Hayat daily on Feb. 6 that Iran poses a threat to the Gulf
states.
In a sign of protest against Abdullah's remarks, Iran was one of the
few countries that did not send a representative to offer condolences
and attend the funeral of King Hussein on Monday.
But after Jordanian officials last week ``offered a clarification''
on the statements to the Iranian ambassador in the Jordanian capital,
Amman, Iran's Foreign Minister Kamal Kharrazi visited the Jordanian
Embassy in Tehran to offer his country's condolences there.
Prime Minister Fayez Tarawneh said Friday in an interview with the
London-based Middle East Broadcasting Center that ``the problem lies
with the reading of the statements.''
He said, ``In this case, the (al-Hayat) report did not reflect
exactly what King Abdullah meant to say.''

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 13 Feb 1999 22:51:34 GMT
From: Farhad Abdolian <farhad@ALGONET.SE>
Subject: Iranian FM visits Libya

TRIPOLI, Feb 13 (AFP) - Iranian Foreign Minister Kamal Kharazi
has arrived in Tripoli for talks on improving bilateral relations,
the official Libyan news agency JANA reported.
Kharazi, who arrived late Friday, was quoted as saying that his
visit "would allow the two countries to examine ways to develop
relations and to discuss a number of regional and international
questions."
Kharazi's visit is the first to Libya by an Iranian foreign
minister since March 1997.

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 13 Feb 1999 22:52:10 GMT
From: Farhad Abdolian <farhad@ALGONET.SE>
Subject: Brother of Iranian leader assaulted

TEHRAN, Iran, Feb. 13 (UPI) -- Newspapers are reporting that the
brother of Iran's supreme spiritual leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, was
severely beaten by religious zealots in a mosque in the southern holy
city of Qom.
The Iranian papers said today that Hujjat al-Islam Hadi Khamenei, who
is also a press adviser to President Mohammad Khatami, was attacked by a
mob on Thursday night as he was about to address worshipers in a Qom
mosque.
Khamenei, a former parliament member who owns a newspaper, suffered
injuries that include a fractured skull after he was assaulted with
sticks and iron bars. The reports said the attackers apparently oppose
the president's reform policies.
Khamenei, whose bodyguards were also attacked, was rushed to hospital
and is reported in stable condition.
The attack on Khamenei, 51, was the third assault by religious hard-
liners on Khatami supporters in Qom in one week. Two other liberal
newspaper journalists were beaten up as they addressed gatherings
marking the 20th anniversary of the Islamic revolution in Iran.
Khamenei was about to speak at Qom's Mohammadiyeh Mosque to
commemorate the death of a Shi'ite Muslim saint, Imam Jafar Sadeq, when
the extremists began shouting ``Death to Khatami'' as they threw stones,
furniture and shoes.
The political views of Khamenei, who owns the leftist World of Islam
newspaper, are different from those of his brother, who leads a hard-
line faction in the Iranian hierarchy.

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 13 Feb 1999 22:52:29 GMT
From: Farhad Abdolian <farhad@ALGONET.SE>
Subject: Iranian president hails Assad's election

DAMASCUS, Feb 12 (AFP) - Iranian President Mohammed Khatami sent
official congratulations to Syrian President Hafez al-Assad for
being re-elected to a fifth term in office, the official Syrian news
agency SANA said Friday.
Khatami hailed the "prosperity" of Syria under Assad and cited
his success at defeating "different plots," SANA said without
elaborating.
Khatami also offered "Iran's support in developing and enriching
relations with Syria in different domains."
Assad won Wednesday's referendum for another seven-year term
with 99.98 percent of the vote. He was the only candidate and has
been in power since 1970.

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 13 Feb 1999 22:52:34 GMT
From: Farhad Abdolian <farhad@ALGONET.SE>
Subject: Dissident Iranian ayatollah dies of stroke

TEHRAN, Feb 12 (AFP) - Dissident Iranian cleric Ayatollah Ahmad
Azari-Qomi died of a stroke Friday, the official news agency IRNA
reported.
The 74-year-old cleric, who received treatment for blood cancer
in Germany last June, had been seriously ill in a Tehran hospital
since January 29, the news agency said.
He was transferred to another hospital after the stroke but
doctors failed to save him, it said.
The influential ayatollah was the target of virulent attacks in
autumn 1997 at the same time as another dissident cleric, Ayatollah
Hossein Ali Montazeri, the now disgraced former heir of the late
revolutionary leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.
Both men were accused of questioning the consitutional
centrepiece of the Islamic Republic -- the position of supreme
leader, currently held by Ayatollah Ali Khamenei.
The premises of a religious seminary run by the two men in the
holy town of Qom, 125 kilometres (75 miles) south of the capital,
were sacked by angry demonstrators in November 1997.
Educated in the seminaries of Qom, Azari-Qomi was a prosecutor
in Iran's revolutionary courts before becoming a member of the
Council of Experts, an elected body charged with appointing the
supreme leader.
He was also an MP and a member of the Expediency Council, Iran's
top constitutional arbitration body.
In 1990 the radical newspaper Kayhan accused Azari-Qomi of
advocating the partial "de-Islamicization" of every day life here.
Montazeri, who currently lives lives under police surveillance
in Qom, ruffled feathers here again last week by urging the
government to restore severed relations with Washington if the
country's interests demanded it.
"Even if the freezing of ties with the United States were a
divine order, it would have been a temporary one and not permanent,"
the reformist paper Khordad quoted him as saying.

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 13 Feb 1999 22:52:39 GMT
From: Farhad Abdolian <farhad@ALGONET.SE>
Subject: Dissident Iranian ayatollah dies of stroke

TEHRAN, Feb 11 (AFP) - Dissident Iranian cleric Ayatollah Ahmad
Azari-Qomi died of a stroke Friday, the official news agency IRNA
reported.
The 74-year-old cleric, who received treatment for blood cancer
in Germany last June, had been seriously ill in a Tehran hospital
since January 29, the news agency said.
He was transferred to another hospital after the stroke but
doctors failed to save him, it said.
The influential ayatollah was the target of virulent attacks in
autumn 1997 at the same time as another dissident cleric, Ayatollah
Hossein Ali Montazeri, the now disgraced former heir of the late
revolutionary leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.
Both men were accused of questioning the consitutional
centrepiece of the Islamic Republic -- the position of supreme
leader, currently held by Ayatollah Ali Khamenei.
The premises of a religious seminary run by the two men in the
holy town of Qom, 125 kilometres (75 miles) south of the capital,
were sacked by angry demonstrators in November 1997.
Educated in the seminaries of Qom, Azari-Qomi was a prosecutor
in Iran's revolutionary courts before becoming a member of the
Council of Experts, an elected body charged with appointing the
supreme leader.
He was also an MP and a member of the Expediency Council, Iran's
top constitutional arbitration body.
In 1990 the radical newspaper Kayhan accused Azari-Qomi of
advocating the partial "de-Islamicization" of every day life here.
Montazeri, who currently lives lives under police surveillance
in Qom, ruffled feathers here again last week by urging the
government to restore severed relations with Washington if the
country's interests demanded it.
"Even if the freezing of ties with the United States were a
divine order, it would have been a temporary one and not permanent,"
the reformist paper Khordad quoted him as saying.

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 13 Feb 1999 22:52:48 GMT
From: Farhad Abdolian <farhad@ALGONET.SE>
Subject: Iran warns Azerbaijan over NATO forces

TEHRAN, Iran, Feb. 12 (UPI) -- Former Iranian President Hashemi
Rafsanjani has warned Azarbaijan against allowing NATO forces into its
territories saying that it will pay a ``high price'' if the forces reach
the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus.
Speaking during Friday prayers, Rafsanjani said Iran rejects recent
statements by some Azerbaijan government officials who expressed ``their
wish to have NATO forces on their territories.''
He described the Azerbaijan call as ``alarming and of great gravity''
to the region and said: ``How would Azerbaijan commit such an ugly
action.''
He noted that the Caspian Sea ``is a region of peace and harmony and
the most important center for the economy of our country.''
He warned that ``opening the way before the United States and NATO to
reach the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus will cost Azerbaijan and the
region dearly.''
Rafsanjani added: ``Those who would commit such a mistake would be
ashamed before history and I hope that the Azerbaijan officials notice
this important issue so that they do not pollute the area in such a way
as resulting in very bad impact.''

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 13 Feb 1999 21:13:42 EST
From: KPGBT@AOL.COM
Subject: Fwd: Quote counterquote

This is a multi-part message in MIME format.

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In a message dated 99-02-13 13:32:16 EST, payman@neda.com writes:

<< Subj: Quote counterquote
Date: 99-02-13 13:32:16 EST
From: payman@neda.com (Payman Arabshahi)
To: iran-news@arash.neda.com

"The people of Iran are considered in [view of Islamic] law,
as orphans and minors, and Islamic scholars and clerics as
their guardians and parents, who have to see to all of their
affairs."

Ayatollah Jannati, in the
meeting of Friday prayer
leaders of Iran, 10 Bahman


"How can a society which has more than one million university
students and 17 million high schoolers, and overall the
people have adequate access to international media, be
considered as orphan and in need of a guardian, especially
from one class? If their understanding of Islam is really
this, why are they being polite - put aside the constitution
of the Islamic Republic once and for all! Why do you spend
so much then on colorful elections? In this geometry of
command, all of these are unncessary extras."

Jahan-e Eslam editorial,
12 Bahman (Editor is Hadi
Khamenei, brother of the
supreme leader, recently
beaten up in Qom).

>>


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Date: Sat, 13 Feb 1999 09:52:08 -0800 (PST)
From: Payman Arabshahi <payman@neda.com>
To: iran-news@arash.neda.com
Subject: Quote counterquote
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"The people of Iran are considered in [view of Islamic] law,
as orphans and minors, and Islamic scholars and clerics as
their guardians and parents, who have to see to all of their
affairs."

Ayatollah Jannati, in the
meeting of Friday prayer
leaders of Iran, 10 Bahman


"How can a society which has more than one million university
students and 17 million high schoolers, and overall the
people have adequate access to international media, be
considered as orphan and in need of a guardian, especially
from one class? If their understanding of Islam is really
this, why are they being polite - put aside the constitution
of the Islamic Republic once and for all! Why do you spend
so much then on colorful elections? In this geometry of
command, all of these are unncessary extras."

Jahan-e Eslam editorial,
12 Bahman (Editor is Hadi
Khamenei, brother of the
supreme leader, recently
beaten up in Qom).


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End of DNI-NEWS Digest - 12 Feb 1999 to 13 Feb 1999
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