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There are 16 messages totalling 1135 lines in this issue.

Topics of the day:

1. UNDER PRESSURE FROM THE LEADER, KHTAMI'S VISIT...
2. Saudi Defense Minister to Visit Iran Next Month
3. Annual Hajj Pilgrimage Rituals End
4. Hajj Pilgrims Stage Anti-US Rally
5. Iranian Embassy Dismisses Azeri Minister's Allegat
6. First Group of Iranian Hajj Pilgrims to Arrive Thu
7. Kosovo Crisis and Khatami's Trip Postponement
8. Jewish MP Feliticates Nou Rouz, Passover Feasts
9. Khatami Hopes New Year Will Be Year of Development
10. Kosovars Hold Rally in New York
11. More Anti-US Protests in Greece
12. FEATURE - Gulf Guards Oil Riches As Majors Prowl
13. NEWSMAKER-BP's Browne Sets Oil World Agenda
14. Iranians of the Year - FYI
15. NORUZ APPEAL
16. IIC: IranAnalysis March 1999

----------------------------------------------------------------------

Date: Tue, 30 Mar 1999 19:12:58 EDT
From: Bobby Iri <Bobby@WWW.DCI.CO.IR>
Subject: UNDER PRESSURE FROM THE LEADER, KHTAMI'S VISIT...

UNDER PRESSURE FROM THE LEADER, KHTAMI'S VISIT TO FRANCE
POSTPONED SINE DIE
========================================================


By the Diplomatic Correspondent of IPS

PARIS 29TH MAR. (IPS) The visit of President ayatollah Mohammad
Khatami to France due to start on 12th April was officially
postponed sine die, confirming the information published in
exclusivity by Iran Press Service.

Officially, the rejection by French officials in charge of
protocol matters of conditions and exigencies imposed by the
Iranians, notably that no alcoholic beverages to be served, no
wine, champagne or liquor bottles to be seen on the tables at
banquets and receptions given in the honour of the Iranian
delegation, prompted the guests to refuse the invitation.

A statement issued Monday by the Office of the President of the
Islamic Republic said since the French refused an Iranian demand
that no alcoholic beverage were to be served during banquets,
therefore it has been decided to postpone the planed visit by
the President to that country

Well informed analysts both in Tehran and Paris immediately said
the decision is in fact taken by the all powerful Office of the
Leader and imposed on Mr. Khatami by the ruling conservatives
clerics with the obvious aim to prevent him to score another
victory in international arena, success that results in further
consolidation of his position at home against that of the
leader, the ayatollah Ali Khameneh'i.

Sources in Tehran told IPS that the hard line clerics who are
really afraid of the growing influence and popularity of Mr.
Khatami, have used the "wine issuelarity of Mr.
Khatami, have used the "wine issue" as an omen pretext to stop
him going to France, the second, but surely the most important
leg of his visits to Western capitals, a tour that started
earlier this month with Italy.

They observed that despite some blunders by the Iranian
delegation during the Italian trip, including misjudgements of
ad hoc situations, due to both a chronic lack of experience by
Mr. Khatami himself and his close advisers with visits to
democratic countries as well as deliberate faux pas,
inappropriate reactions and wrong advises provided by some
diplomats connected with the hard liners, the visit was hailed
as a personal success for the President, making him the "third
force" between those of the leader and the omnipresent
"chameleon" ayatollah Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, the former
president who now leads the influential Council for the
Discernment of the State's Interests.

That explains the uncompromising attitude adopted by the
Iranians, insisting that the programme of the visit must be
decided by them and according to Islamic traditions and not by
the French protocol.

Reminding the Iranian clerics that serving wine in official
banquets is an old tradition in France that can not be changed
and that politeness and fair play tell that the guests should
comply to the rules of the hosts, the French protocol suggested
that Iranian delegation could be excused for not toasting with
wine or champagne, taking soft drinks instead, or,
alternatively, replacing the official banquet by the French
President by a cocktail, where both alcoholic and non-alcoholic
drinks will be served.

That solution had been accepted by the Saudi protocol f
or the
first official visit of King Fahd to France some years ago,
French sources recalled.

The Iranians rejected the offer, insisting that President
Chirac's diner in the honour of his counterpart must be kept as
programmed, but wine and champagne and cognac must be
prohibited.

The Iranians sat other conditions for the visit including

++ A total ban on any demonstration by the Iranian opposition
against the Islamic regime;

++ No public mention, by the French interlocutors, on the
situation of human rights conditions in Iran, no raising of the
murder of dissidents and the recent assassination of political
and intellectual opponents of the Islamic Republic like the late
Dariuc Republic like the late
Dariush Foruhar and his wife Parvaneh Eskandari, leaders of the
secular Iranian People's Party and Piruz Davani, writers
Mohammad Mokhtari and Mohammad Ja'far Pouyandeh by official
agents of the Islamic regime;

++ And above all, a formal pledge that Mr. Salman Rushdie, the
Anglo-Indian novelist who is under a death sentence issued ten
years ago by the Islamic authorities of Iran because of his
controversial book "The Satanic Verses" would not show up in
France during the time of the visit, as it happened in Italy
where he was bestowed a honorary degree from the Turin
University at exactly the same time that Mr. Khatami was
lecturing about freedom, human rights, dialogue among
civilisations at the European University Institute in Florence.

Though the Italians had, according to the Iranians, promised
that these matters will not be addressed, yet they were
mentioned by Italian MPs and authorities, due particularly to
timely briefing of the Italians by Ms. Parastou Foruhar, the
daughter of the murdered couple and her lawyer Dr Karim Lahiji,
president of the Iranian Human Rights Federation,

Those events, presented by some members in Mr. Khatami's
delegation as "plots by the US and Israel" to undermine the
visit prompted senior hard line personalities such as Mr. Asgar
Owladi Mosalman, the general secretary of the "Muslim's
Coalition League", the political arm of the notorious "Feda'yane
Eslam" terrorist organisation that controls the whole of the
Islamic Republic's political and military establishment, the
ayatollah Mohammad Yazdi, the hawkish Head of the Islamic
Judiciary who is a close associate of the leader and the
ayatollah Hashemi Rafsanjani to warn France before hand of
"bearing all consequences" if what the "silly Italians" did were
to be repeated in Paris.

In fact, observers notes, the French visit of Mr. Khatami was in
trouble from the very beginning, starting with serious
divergences that erupted between the Matignon (Government) and
Elysees (President) offices over the murder of dissidents by so
far unidentified agents of the regime, with the ruling
Socialist-led, Comh the ruling
Socialist-led, Communist and Green ch the ruling
Socialist-led, Communist and Green coalition government of Mr.
Lionel Jospin calling on the conservative President Jacques
Chirac for a "time out" until the murderers are identified and
brought to justice.

A diplomatic incident created by Kamal Kharrazi the arrogant
Foreign Minister of the Islamic Republic during a short trip to
Paris last January aimed at finalising Mr. Khatami's visit to
France angered the French authorities.

Scheduled from months before to address the prestigious French
Institute for Internatione prestigious French
Institute for International Relations on the foreign policies of
the Islamic Republic, Mr. Kharrazi failed to show up without the
slightest words of excuses or regrets for the directors of the
Institute nor the more than three hundreds high ranking,
prominent French and foreign dignitaries from the diplomatic,
business, government and press corps who had come on invitation
and had waited in vain for more than half an hour.

"In the 20 years of the life of our institute, no one had ever
done what the Foreign Minister of the Islamic Republic of Iran
did", said the outraged President of IFRI, apologising to a
bewildered audience for the utterly impolite, undiplomatic
action of Mr. Kharrazi.

More over, as a nation-wide campaign against the visit by
Iranian dissidents is taking place, with planed ads in leading
newspapers protesting against the killing of dissidents, calling
for dispatch of independent international missions to Tehran to
investigate the killings, the French authorities have already
issued permission to several Iranian opposition groups to
organise peaceful demonstrations in several places of the Paris,
but far from the path of the Iranian delegation.

Whatever the reasons behind the cancellation of the French
visit, it is certain that the incident will greatly harm the
slightly recovered image of the Islamic Republic in the
international public opinion, a lifting due mostly to efforts
undertaken by President Khatami, portrayed in the West as
"reformist and moderate", since his landslide victory in the
presidential elections of 1997 in opening up the political
atmosphere back at home.

"And this is exactly what the hard line, conservative
establishment, led by the ayatollah Khameneh'i are aft
er",
points out an Iranian analyst in Tehran, urging the West to
continue its dialogue with the moderates in Tehran, being sure
that this sad event will by all means serve the cause of
democracy and freedom in Iran. ENDS 2 KHATAMI PARIS 3039904

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 30 Mar 1999 21:53:00 EDT
From: Bobby Iri <Bobby@WWW.DCI.CO.IR>
Subject: Saudi Defense Minister to Visit Iran Next Month

Saudi Defense Minister to Visit Iran Next Month
===============================================

thr 001
iran-saudi-defense
saudi defense minister to visit iran next month
tehran, march 30, irna -- iranian ambassador to saudi arabia mohamma
reza nouri shahroudi announced monday that the saudi minister of
defense and civil aviation prince sultan ibn abd al-azia as-sa'ud will
pay an official visit to iran from may 1.
he told irna that the visit is considered to be significant as the
defense minister holds a very important position in the saudi
government.
nouri shahroudi hoped that the visit will result in the signing of
an important agreement on defense matters
iby the two countries, which
are the two most important powers in the persian gulf region. it will
also open up new horizons in ties between the two countries on
defense, security and military matters, he stated.
the visit, nouri shahroudi went on, will lead to the finalization
of bilateral cooperation in other fields such as the environment, air
transport and civil aviation.
the saudi national carrier saudia has announced that it will
operate flights to tehran, shiraz and mashhad from next june, he said
adding, ''this is in itself important in facilitating travel and
commerce between the two countries.''
following the establishment of these f
following the establishment of these flights, he said, iran air
will in the future operate flights to other cities in saudi arabia
from tehran and shiraz.
referring to the iran-saudi ties in various fields, he said these
ties are now following an upward trend and tehran appreciates the
conveniences extended to iranian pilgrs the
conveniences extended to iranian pilgrs the
conveniences extended to iranian pilgrims. he said that tehran-riyadh
ties are now at their peak.
the two countries have also been able to exchange various
political, cultural, commercial, scientific and sports delegations and
develop good understanding in these areas, observed the envoy. the
setting up of the first joint commission between the two countries two
months ago bears witness to this fact, he said.
the recent historic agreement between the two countries on issues
relating to oil had a very desirable impact on the members of the
organization of petroleum exporting countries (opec), a majority of
whom are islamic countries, declared nouri shahroudi.
turning to trade and commerce he said that iran's exclusive trade
fair was very well received in riyadh two months ago and the same was
true for the fair held in dhahran two weeks ago.
he went on to announce that an exclusive iranian trade fair will
open in jedda on thursday april 1. this will be the first such fair to
be held in western saudi arabia and will familiarize saudi businessmen
and industrialists with iranian made goods, he pointed out.
given the strategic location of the tw
given the strategic location of the two countries in the persian
gulf region, the cooperation between iran and saudi arabia has
resulted in a reduction of concern and anxiety among the countries in
the region while at the same time has enhanced unity and convergence
of ideas among them.
on the forthcoming state visit to saudi arabia by president seyyed
mohammad khatami, he hoped that in view of the interest shown by the
saudi government on the matter, the date for the visit should be
fixed at the earliest.
the visit by president khatami, he went on, could result in
greater cooperation between the two countries in various fields
including oil both bilaterally and within opec. the visit could
also pave the way for the exchange of technical and engineering data,
the exchange of professors and cooperation in security matter between
iran and saudi arabia, stated nouri shahroudi.
''the officials of the two countries are determined to continue
the path of strengthening and expanding bilateral ties in such a way
that these ties serve as a model for other countries in the region and
among islamic countries,'' he observed.
president khatami's visit could not materialize during the annual
hajj pilgrimage due to his preoccupations, he said adding, ''this has
not only failed to create a vacuum in bilateral ties but due to his
constant contacts with the saudi king and crown prince, these ties
have become even broader.''
ah/hm
end
::irna 30/03/99 01:25

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 30 Mar 1999 21:53:10 EDT
From: Bobby Iri <Bobby@WWW.DCI.CO.IR>
Subject: Annual Hajj Pilgrimage Rituals End

Annual Hajj Pilgrimage Rituals End
==================================


thr 031
pilgrimage-rituals
annual hajj pilgrimage rituals end
holy mecca, march 29, irna -- following the conclusion of the final
phase of the annual hajj pilgrimage, the pilgrims, having performed
their final rituals, are now leaving the holy city of mecca.
almost 90,000 iranian pilgrims expressed love for god and the
household of the holy prophet and hatred for the enemies of islam,
performed the last ritual of stoning the devil. many were openly
weeping as they left for mecca after the noon prayers.
the rituals of the pilgrimage started on the ninth of the lunar
month of dhul-hajjeh with the congregation of the plains of arafat,
holding the ceremony of the disavowal of the unbelievers and the
saying of special prayers. then they left for mina to perform other
rituals.
today, while the pilgrims were happy that they had successfully
performed the entire pilgrimage rituals, they were also sad that they
would have to leave mecca within the next couple of days.
half of the iranian pilgrims will gradually begin heading for
home as of thursday, april 1 while others will leave for medina
to pay their homage at the holy shrine of the prophet of islam at
masjed al-nabi as well as the baqie' cemetery.
ah/hm
end
::irna 29/03/99 23:27

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 30 Mar 1999 21:53:16 EDT
From: Bobby Iri <Bobby@WWW.DCI.CO.IR>
Subject: Hajj Pilgrims Stage Anti-US Rally

Hajj Pilgrims Stage Anti-US Rally
=================================


thr 020
hajj-rallies
hajj pilgrims stage anti-us rally
mina, march 30, irna -- hajj pilgrims here monday staged a rally
and chanted slogans against the u.s. and the zionist regime, urging
world muslims to consolidate their unity.
the rally was staged following conclusion of last stage of
throwing stones at the three pillars symbolizing the devil in mina,
outside the holy city of mecca.
pilgrims from different countries participated in the rally
chanting slogans such as 'down with the u.s.' and 'death to israel' in
arabic language.
hundreds of saudi security guards were present on the scene
watching the rally.
fs/rr
end
::irna 30/03/99 15:28

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 30 Mar 1999 21:53:44 EDT
From: Bobby Iri <Bobby@WWW.DCI.CO.IR>
Subject: Iranian Embassy Dismisses Azeri Minister's Allegat

Iranian Embassy Dismisses Azeri Minister's Allegations
======================================================


thr 021
iran-azerbaijan-abbasov
iranian embassy dismisses azeri minister's allegations
baku, march 30, irna -- iranian embassy in baku in a statement on
tuesday denied azeri national security minister namic r.abbasov's
allegations iran and russia were sponsoring sabotage activities
against baku.
abbasov claimed at a ceremonies marking 80th anniversary of the
formation of security organizations in azerbaijan that iran and russia
followed similar objectives against baku.
he also alleged that iran and russia have not only imposed
economic and political sanctions on baku but have also been involved
in espionage activities in azerbaijan.
the iranian embassy said that iran has always been for all-out
expansion of relations with azerbaijan, considering its commonalties
with the republic, the existing bonds between iranian and azeri
nations, the principle of good neighborliness and non-intervention in
other countries' internal affairs.
bg/rr
end
::irna 30/03/99 15:53

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 30 Mar 1999 21:53:28 EDT
From: Bobby Iri <Bobby@WWW.DCI.CO.IR>
Subject: First Group of Iranian Hajj Pilgrims to Arrive Thu

First Group of Iranian Hajj Pilgrims to Arrive Thursday
=======================================================


thr 013
pilgrims-return
first group of iranian hajj pilgrims to arrive thursday
tehran, march 30, irna -- the islamic republicmarch 30, irna -- the
islamic republic of iran airlines
(iran air), in a statement issued here tuesday, announced that the
first group of iranian hajj pilgrims will return home on thursday
april 1.
return of the pilgrims will take place following the conclusion
of last stage of their hajj pilgrimage on monday.
the first flights of the iranian pilgrims will be from jeddah to
tehran and mashhad, the statement added.
fs/ks
end
::irna 30/03/99 13:01

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 30 Mar 1999 21:53:36 EDT
From: Bobby Iri <Bobby@WWW.DCI.CO.IR>
Subject: Kosovo Crisis and Khatami's Trip Postponement

Kosovo Crisis and Khatami's Trip Postponement
=============================================


Iran-e Emrooz
Oneline Persian Bulletin
Mar 29, 1999

...
Some analysts believe that Khatami's French visit
postponement is not originated from the disagreement
on serving wine at state banquets, as French and
Iranian diplomatic sources mentioned, nor is this come
from foreign based opposition group, MKO, plans to
stage week-long protests in Paris during his trip as
MKO sources said. This simply originates from Kosovo
crisis, the analysts say. Because public opinion in
Europe and whole the world is turned toward the
military action taken by NATO against Yugoslavia,
Khatami'a trip will be shaded by the crisis and the
desirable aims considered for the second ever Iran's
president trip to Europe after the revolution won't be
achieved. Therefore Khatami's consultants recommend him
to put off the trip under the pretext of disagreement
"with French authorities on respecting Islamic and
national norms." These analysts say that the trip will
be taken when the crisis subsides.


--------------------------------------------------
Reach Iran-e Emrooz Oneline Bulletin at:

http://www.main-rheiner.de/homepage/ganbari/index.htm

Note: You need Persian fonts to read the documents,
though you can get them from the site, itself.

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 30 Mar 1999 21:53:52 EDT
From: Bobby Iri <Bobby@WWW.DCI.CO.IR>
Subject: Jewish MP Feliticates Nou Rouz, Passover Feasts

Jewish MP Feliticates Nou Rouz, Passover Feasts
===============================================

thr 016
feast-jews
jewish mp feliticates nou rouz, passover feasts
tehran, march 30, irna -- jewish majlis deputy, manouchehr elyasi
in a message here tuesday felicitated the iranian new year (nou rouz)
and passover feasts.
in his message, elyasi said that the passover feast is a reminder
of victory of divine forces against satanic powers and victory of
truth over falsehood and of faith over infidelty.
feliticating the leader of the islamic revolution ayatollah ali
khamenei and president mohammad khatami, he wished success for the
islamic republic officials and health and prosperity for the iranian
nation and the jewish iranians.
the 2-day passover celebrations start on wednesday.
ys/ks
end
::irna 30/03/99 13:05

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 30 Mar 1999 21:54:00 EDT
From: Bobby Iri <Bobby@WWW.DCI.CO.IR>
Subject: Khatami Hopes New Year Will Be Year of Development

Khatami Hopes New Year Will Be Year of Development
==================================================


thr 015
president-new year
khatami hopes new year will be year of development
tehran, march 30, irna -- president mohammad khatami here monday
expressed the hope that the new iranian year will be the year of
development and success for the nation in different economic,
political and cultural fields.
addressing the staff of the presidential office on the occasion
of advent of the new iranian year, he also called for settlement of
problems facing the iranian people.
praising the great efforts being made by the state employees, the
president said that they shoulder heavy responsibilities in the
society.
stressing that people are the real owners of the revolution and
the country, he called on the officials to serve the nation and make
greater efforts to solve the existing problems.
fs/ks
end
::irna 30/03/99 13:04

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 30 Mar 1999 21:54:10 EDT
From: Bobby Iri <Bobby@WWW.DCI.CO.IR>
Subject: Kosovars Hold Rally in New York

Kosovars Hold Rally in New York
===============================


thr 004
kosovo-rally
kosovars hold rally in new york
new york, march 30, irna -- about 5,000 kosovars living in the united
states held a rally in front of the united nations headquarters here
monday urging the international community to stop genocide in kosovo,
yugoslavia.
the demonstrators supported the airstrikes launched by the
north atlantic treaty organization (nato) against the yugoslav
military installations and putting pressure on president slobodan
milosevic to end ethnic cleansing against kosovar albaians.
citing several examples of the atrocities committed by the serb
forces, the demonstrators described milosevic as a war criminal.
distributing a leaflet at the rally, the demonstrators said that
in one case, the serbs hanged 20 male teachers in front of their
students.
in another incident, they said, the serb forces tied up 37
albanian males to trees and sliced them into pieces with chain saw.
"this is only a minor part of how the serb forces slaughtered
the ethnic albanians in kosovo,'' the kosovars said in the leaflet.
the demonstrators called on nato to arm the kosovo liberation army
(kla) which seeks independence for the province.
'save kosovar albanians,' one placard carried by the demonstrators
read.
ss/ys
end
::irna 30/03/99 10:29

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 30 Mar 1999 21:54:26 EDT
From: Bobby Iri <Bobby@WWW.DCI.CO.IR>
Subject: More Anti-US Protests in Greece

More Anti-US Protests in Greece
===============================


thr 003
greece-u.s.-demonstrations
more anti-u.s. protests in greece
athens, march 30, irna --- about five thousand people demonstrated in
front of the american consulate in the northern greek city of
thessaloniki monday evening in protest against nato air strikes on
yugoslavia.
the demonstrators, who included many serbs living in northern
greece, pelted the consulate with stones, firecrackers and eggs.
riot police blocked the path of the demonstrators from approaching
the consulate situated in central thessaloniki by placing three police
vans in front of the building.
the demonstration was organised by several trade and student
unions of greece's second-largest city.
the leader of the greek dikki political party, dimitris tsovolas,
who went to thessaloniki, 520 kms north of athens, to participate in
the demonstration condemned the u.s and nato as ''international
terrorists.''
last week a huge anti-american demonstration was held in athens
and on sunday in hania outside the u.s. military base on the island of
crete. the protesters called for the closure of the u.s. base in
crete.
meanwhile, greek artists on monday announced plans for an
all-night silent protest outside the u.s. embassy on the night of
march 30, to underline their objections to
the nato offensive on
yugoslavia.
also planned is an anti-war concert in thessaloniki on friday
evening and letters of protest to be sent to the embassies of european
nations.
the ''citizen's initiative of march 1'' is a group of greek
actors, singers, journalists, academics and celebrities.
the group organised last month's six-hour solidarity concert in
athens for the kurds, in the wake of the arrest of the pkk-leader
abdullah ocalan.
nk/hm
end
::irna 30/03/99 01:30

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 30 Mar 1999 21:54:56 EDT
From: Bobby Iri <Bobby@WWW.DCI.CO.IR>
Subject: FEATURE - Gulf Guards Oil Riches As Majors Prowl

FEATURE - Gulf Guards Oil Riches As Majors Prowl
================================================


01:03 a.m. Mar 30, 1999 Eastern
By William Maclean

LONDON, March 30 (Reuters) - Time was when Gulf states gushed
oil for Western majors without knowing the enormity of the
profits flooding corporate coffers in London and Houston.

Today, 25 years after Gulf oil sectors threw off foreign
domination and bought the majors out, key OPEC powers are once
again opening giant fields to international projects.

But this time, majors in a post-colonial era are unable to bully
their way back to their old haunts in the volatile region
boasting the world's biggest and lowest-cost reserves.

Instead, they must wrestle with tough commercial terms that
could set new benchmarks for oil investment around the world.

``The past was domination. Now we set the terms,'' Kuwaiti Oil
Minister Sheikh Saud Nasser al-Sabah told Reuters.

OIL SOVEREIGNTY REMAINS VITAL FOR GULF STATES

No longer cowed by Big Oil's mystique, Gulf states see the
generous concessions of the past as a regrettable aberration.

``This is THE place to do business `` says Christophe de
Margerie, president of Total's (TOTF.PA) Middle East division.

``But never forget -- you are there to do what you are asked to
do, not what you want to do.''

New terms offered by Iran, Iraq and Kuwait reflect the shift in
the industry's balance of power since 1970s OPEC oil nationalism
ended the dominance of a group of U.S. and British firms known
informally as the Seven Sisters.

Gulf states now guard ownership of assets once described by the
U.S. government as the century's greatest commercial prize.

Contracts that cloak the dimensions of a major's earnings -- as
many of the old concessions did -- would be unthinkable.

``Sovereignty remains the key,'' said oil consultant Alfred
Boulos, a former executive of U.S. company Conoco (COC.N).

``The host government has to be seen as in charge. The oil
companies are willing to accept that. This is not the 1960s.''

At the close of that decade the vast returns made by the majors
in their heyday were revealed when the U.S. Department of
Commerce pegged net 1970 Middle East petroleum industry assets
at $1.5 billion and profits at $1.2 billion.

That gave a whopping 79 percent return on investment -- a
calculation carefully noted by Gulf oil powers at the time.

The idea of the latest Gulf opening is to gain high-tech Western
geological and engineering expertise and finance to spruce up
ageing fields and increase output capacity.

But Gulf countries insist that foreigners now act as mere
contractors who put up development money without enjoying
ownership of reserves or automatically operating fields.

COMPLEX TERMS MEAN WORK FOR LAWYERS, NOT ENGINEERS

For example Iran, offering a huge programme of more than 40
projects to outside investors, has gone to great lengths to show
its citizens that national ownership remains inviolate.

As a result some Gulf contracts are far more complex than the
old concession arrangements where a foreign partner had title to
reserves and merely paid tax to the host government.

``Gulf states are paranoid about losing ownership of the family
silver. They gave it away before and it didn't work. It was
abused,'' says Steve Lowden of Britain's Premier Oil.

``But in not giving it away, you have to create such a
complicated model to make it work. Can you imagine what a dream
world it is for an accountant and a lawyer -- and what a
nightmare it is for a petroleum engineer?''
For companies seeking development work, the challenge is to
hammer out a good agreement from intricate commercial proposals
mostly far stricter than those available elsewhere.

GULF OIL POSES UNIQUE SET OF RISKS AND REWARDS

Gulf states can drive hard bargains because development projects
pose little oil risk -- generations of geologists have long
confirmed the magnitude of their oil deposits.

This leaves negotiators to focus on fiscal models to try to
identify the underlying cash flow of a given investment regime.

``The companies don't care whether they are in a traditional tax
band/royalty regime or a production sharing regime,'' said Derek
Butter, head of petroleum economics at Wood Mackenzie.

``The companies look at exactly how the risks and rewards stack
up and the post-tax return on offer.

``That's why Iraq can get away with trying to get 88 percent of
profit oil while companies are not keen to explore the U.K. even
when they're paying only 30 percent to the state.''

Companies targeting Gulf projects have two broad goals, says
Chris Tinkler, a Middle East expert at IHS Energy Group --
flexibility in operations and long-term access to the crude.

Access puts the focus squarely on political variables, a big
concern with Iraq's medium risk/high reward model.

IRAQ CAN DRIVE HARD BARGAIN IF RETURNS ARE QUICK

It offers a 20-year production sharing mode usually favoured by
investors that allows foreigners an equity stake in the oil
produced -- subject to a lifting of U.N. sanctions.

But an unwritten assumption is that substantial returns will
have to be available within the first five years since projects
could be hostage to Iraq's political instability.

The industry is only now warming to the less familiar buy-back
model offered by Iran. Its low risk/medium reward back regime
repays foreign partners in production from the field at a fixed
rate of return of between 15 and 20 percent.

Contracts are shorter at up to eight years, but the host
government takes the price risk.

IRAN PROTECTS INVESTORS FROM DOWNSIDE PRICE RISK

``You don't get the upside, but you're pretty protected on the
downside. In a period of low prices it's not a bad thing to have
in your portfolio,'' said Butter.
Kuwait's model offers a complex buy-back style contract that
requires foreign partners to reinvest heavily over 20 years,
with price risk shouldered by Kuwait. Details are still under
wraps but the fields concerned are massive and low risk.

Whatever regime companies face, cash flow is paramount.

``The model is a merely a conduit,'' said Boulos.

``Like selling whisky or perfume, you package it to make it more
appealing. But the bottom line is all that counts.''


Copyright 1999 Reuters Limited.

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 30 Mar 1999 21:55:16 EDT
From: Bobby Iri <Bobby@WWW.DCI.CO.IR>
Subject: NEWSMAKER-BP's Browne Sets Oil World Agenda

NEWSMAKER-BP's Browne Sets Oil World Agenda
===========================================


06:27 a.m. Mar 29, 1999 Eastern
By Richard Meares
LONDON, March 29 (Reuters) - The man re-shaping the world's oil
industry likes to puff away on cigars, but little else about Sir
John Browne fits the popular image of a magnate made rich by
black gold.

The British chief executive of BP Amoco -- hoping to suck U.S.
company ARCO into his empire just weeks after he created his
global giant -- is far from a JR, the Texan soap opera character
many think of as the archetype.

Browne is a reserved but witty Cambridge physics graduate, a
dimunitive bachelor who likes antiques and opera and who one
newspaper said looked more like a studious bank clerk.

He is liked and admired by rivals as well as colleagues.

What he does share with JR, though, is a single-minded
determination that strikes awe into competitors.

Analysts who lauded last year's BP/Amoco deal have reacted
positively to Browne's latest expansion plan, as a depressed oil
price forces the pace of consolidation in the industry.

``It's an example of BP and John Browne setting the industry
agenda,'' said Commerzbank analyst Tim Whittaker.

In a fund manager survey, Browne emerged as the most admired
boss of Britain's 100 top companies but is no Mr Nice Guy. He
has never been shy to axe jobs ruthlessly where he saw fit.

Some 10,000 BP Amoco staff will lose their jobs this year as
Browne tries to meet his target of saving $2.0 billion a year.

``Call him Neutron John: he savages cost bases but leaves the
assets standing,'' the Financial Times wrote in its Lex column.

In charge since 1995, Browne rescued BP from the doldrums and
then, after the audacious merger with Chicago-based Amoco,
turned it into Britain's biggest company and the world's third
largest oil concern.
If the deal with ARCO goes ahead, BP Amoco will move up to
second place behind Exxon-Mobil, which agreed to fuse in the
wake of the BP deal.

``These are odd times in `These are odd times in the oil industry and
for a short period
there are some fantastic opportunities for brave companies,''
one source close to the talks with Atlantic Richfield (ARCO)
told the Financial Times.

And if anyone has the bravery to cash in, it is Browne, who at
51 is younger than most of his corporate peers.

He was born in Hamburg in Germany after World War Two, the son
of a British soldier who later worked for BP and a Romanian
translator for the Allies.

After a first in physics at Cambridge and top marks at Stanford
University business school, in 1966 he joined BP, the former
Anglo-Persian Oil Company that was founded in 1908 and struck
the first oil in Iran, Kuwait and Iraq.

He started work as a petroleum engineer in Alaska -- where a
merger of BP and ARCO operations could cut costs significantly.

Since 1995, when he became BP's youngest chief executive, he has
presided over a quadrupling in its market capitalisation.

He lives beside the Thames in London with his widowed mother
whom he often takes as his partner to corporate social events.

Browne, knighted by Queen Elizabeth last year, denies being a
workaholic but puts in 70-80 hours a week at BP and is a
non-executive director of SmithKline Beecham and Intel.

In what spare time he has, he reads, listens to opera, watches
films and goes to the theatre.


Copyright 1999 Reuters Limited.

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 30 Mar 1999 17:34:54 EST
From: CHAIRNGO@AOL.COM
Subject: Iranians of the Year - FYI

T H E I R A N I A N T I M E S
Friday, March 26, 1999 / Farvardin 6, 1378, No. 694

Other Iranians of the Year:

* Maryam Namazie:
http://www.iranian.com/Opinion/March99/IOTY/namazie.html

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 30 Mar 1999 17:32:49 EST
From: CHAIRNGO@AOL.COM
Subject: NORUZ APPEAL

March 21, 1999

Dear Friend,

I am writing once more to wish you a happy noruz and request
your support for the critical work of the International Federation
of Iranian Refugees (IFIR) and the Committee for Humanitarian
Assistance to Iranian Refugees (CHAIR). Over these years, you
have seen our unrelenting defense of refugee and human rights,
a defense which has pushed back assaults on rights and saved
thousands of lives.

Though there have been times when we could not pay our phone
bills nor print Hambastegi, we have never turned anyone away
nor neglected our duties. It is amazing just how many people
look to us as their main source of hope and power - from political
opponents, women fleeing stoning and violence, workers, youth,
children, Kurds, religious minorities, writers, film makers, and
all those targeted by the Islamic regime for just trying to live. It
is their protests that we have organized and defended. From Iraq
to Turkey to the United States we have made a tremendous
difference in the lives of innumerable human beings. Our
successes have truly been successes for all humanity.

In an era of unprecedented barbarity, join or strengthen a movement
which demands unconditional refugee and human rights.

Best wishes,
Maryam Namazie
Steering Committee Member, CHAIR
Deputy Director, IFIR

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------
Yes, I want to take a stand with CHAIR and the IFIR. Please make
checks payable to CHAIR. Donations are tax-deductible. Enclosed is my:

Donation of: ____$25 ____$50 ____$75 ____$100 ____$250
____$500 ____$Other
Subscription to Hambastegi for: ____$15

Name ________________________________________
Address ________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
Phone _______________________ E-Mail _____________________________

Please fill out and mail to: GPO, P. O. Box 7051, New York, NY 10116
Tel: 212-747-1046 Fax: 212-425-7260 E-mail: chairngo@aol.com
Web Sites: www.hambastegi.org / www.chair.org

****
WHAT IS IFIR?

Mission

The International Federation of Iranian Refugees (IFIR) is committed to
organizing the protests of Iranian refugees and asylum seekers in
support of political and social campaigns which:

∑ defend refugee and human rights;
∑ expose the Islamic Republic of Iran;
∑ reveal the progressive and modern character of Iranian refugees in
contrast to usual negative and reactionary portrayals;
∑ create a progressive environment among Iranians abroad; and
∑ place this force alongside the progressive forces in their
countries of residence.

Hambastegi (Solidarity) is IFIRís bi-monthly publication which
promotes its mission.

Organizational Structure

Established in 1990, IFIR is an international organization with over
40 branches in fifteen countries world-wide. Each branch promotes
IFIRís mission in its own country of residence. Any individual/organization
who/which believes in IFIRís mission can become a member and
activist, as long as s/he has not been involved in the repressive forces
of the Islamic Republic of Iran or monarchy. The IFIR Director, elected
by branch representatives in bi-annual conferences, provides political
guidance and summons international campaigns.

Accomplishments

IFIRís accomplishments over the years are many. Recent examples
are:

∑ International Efforts Against Turkish Government Successful,
September 1997: IFIRís campaign against the Turkish governmentís
decision to deport 600 asylum seekers succeeded in canceling their
deportation orders, gaining transit visas for those refugees who had
been deported to Iraq prior to the initiation of the campaign, and gaining
exit visas for those being transferred to a safe resettlement country.

∑ The Dutch Government Backs Down, October 1997: On October 20,
1997 a five-member IFIR delegation was invited to speak at a
parliamentary hearing about the Ministry of Foreign Affairsí report on
Iran which effectively deemed Iran a safe country. In the face of strong
opposition, including mass demonstrations and a sit-in organized by
the IFIR Netherlands Branch, the Ministry called for an end to
deportations until further investigations were made into the situation in
Iran.

∑ Iranian Refugees in Iraq End Successful Sit-in, September 1998: Faced
with local pressure from Iranian refugees in Iraqi Kurdistan who had
organized a sit-in as well international pressure coordinated by IFIR,
the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) finally
addressed the legitimate demands of the refugees. The UNHCR Iraq
Branch Office agreed to doubling food rations, providing medical
and pharmaceuticals services, expediting the determination
procedures and resettling up to 2,000 refugees.

∑ The Anti-Refugee Policies of the German Government is Condemned,
September 1998: A protest campaign summoned by the IFIR German
Branch and three other organizations was endorsed by more than 200
organizations. More than 30 thousand individuals participated in the
actions which took place in 36 cities throughout Germany.

∑ The Minister of Immigration Backs Down, October 14, 1998:
The Canadian Minister of Immigration formally opposed many items
on the "Not Just Numbers" Legislation, though she had initially
supported it. The legislation was to pass in May of this year but failed
as a result of national protests organized by the "Campaign Against
the Federal Government Attacks on Immigrants and Refugees," initiated
by the IFIR Canada Branch.

∑ Iran is Unsafe, Deportation Must End," November 16, 1998: As a result
of the IFIR Swedish Branchís protests, representatives of seven parties
in the Swedish parliament signed a recommendation stating that Iran
be deemed unsafe and that deportation to Iran be stopped.

*****
WHAT IS CHAIR?

Background

The Committee for Humanitarian Assistance to Iranian Refugees (CHAIR)
was created in 1992 with the mission to empower Iranian refugees
and asylum seekers to promote and protect their rights within a
participatory framework, locally and globally. CHAIR was founded on
the premise that refugees and asylum seekers who have access to
resources and support they need for survival, who are aware and informed
of their rights and the root causes of their problems, and who are
organized in groups around mutual concerns, are empowered to
articulate and struggle for social changes.

Programs

In carrying out its activities, CHAIR employs several strategies,
including advocacy, education, organizing, collective power sharing
and participation, ongoing dialoguing and collaborative relationships
with other organizations. CHAIR has the following goals and objectives
in its four program areas:

The Advocacy Program advocates for the general right to asylum for
those who have fled the Islamic Republic of Iran; for changes in
structures, policies and institutions that negatively affect refugee
rights; and to expose the root cause of Iranian refugee flow - the
Islamic Republic of Iran. Internationally, CHAIR works under the
auspices of the International Federation of Iranian Refugees (IFIR)
of which CHAIR is a member.

The Organizing Program aims to build a constituency base for
collective action against the Islamic Republic of Iran and anti-
refugee policies and practices to obtain solutions and power.

The Education Program aims to provide refugees and asylum
seekers with information on their rights, the refugee definition
and procedures and expose the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Hambastegi (Solidarity), the International Federation of
Iranian Refugees (IFIR) publication, is also CHAIRís publication.

The Women's Program aims to raise awareness on the status of
women in Iran, advocate for gender-based asylum and expose the
Islamic regimeís treatment of women. As a member of the International
Campaign in Defense of Women's Rights in Iran (ICDWRI), CHAIR
conducts its international womenís rights work under the auspices of ICDWRI.

------------------------------

Date: Wed, 31 Mar 1999 06:16:24 EDT
From: Bobby Iri <Bobby@WWW.DCI.CO.IR>
Subject: IIC: IranAnalysis March 1999

Italy leads the way
===================


IRANIANS FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
IranAnalysis March 1999
www.iic.org


Close to two years after President Khatami's election, the reformists
have detected a pattern in the strategy of the traditionalist faction:
to counter and disrupt each achievement of the moderates in the area
of foreign policy and dťtente by cracking down on Iran's reform
process. During Iran's hosting of the Islamic Conference Organization,
considered a significant breakthrough in Iran's relations with Arab
countries, the conservative faction used their control of the
judiciary to arrest a prominent critic, Ebrahim Yazdi. While President
Khatami made his groundbreaking trip to the United Nations, two of
Iran's most outspoken papers, Tous and RaheNo, were ordered to shut
down and their journalists arrested. Similarly, in the past month,
when the President traveled to Italy, being the first visit of an
Iranian leader of a West European country, a reformist cleric, Mohsen
Kadivar, was arrested and jailed. The conservatives fear Iran's
opening to the West since it will facilitate the
democratization-process and considerably mitigate the influence of the
radicals. Well aware of this, Khatami has made Iran's "de-isolation" a
priority, in which the lifting of the US sanctions constitute a key
component.

Realizing the traditionalist faction's objective in trying to create
enough reformist outrage that could warrant a crackdown on the pace of
political development under the pretext of preventing instability, the
pro-reformist forces decided to cancel a nationwide rally against
their opponents. Thus, the reformists have not only gained a higher
moral ground in the public opinion but have also shown a remarkable
maturity in understanding the delicate nature the reform process.

Such delicacy has marked the moderates strategy of reform through and
through. The international community has also shown its appreciation
of the challenges Iran faces in its endeavor to achieve democracy.
Iran's relations with its immediate neighbors to the south have
improved considerably, and in the West, countries such as Italy and
Greece have been the first to demonstrate enough politic
courage to
facilitate the ongoing reforms process in Iran. Unfortunately,
skeptics have argued that it is solely economic interests that are
guiding Italy and Greece toward a rapprochement with Iran. Although
economic interests do play a role here as in all other issues, it is
wishful thinking that other concerns have not played a far more
prominent role. Greece and Italy both rallied for EU support of
Khatami's idea of a "Dialogue between Civilizations". This idea,
embodied in UN Resolution A/RES/53/22, is a step in a greater strategy
that has very little to do with trade as an end. It is about the
necessity to reintegrate Iran with the world community, and not
isolate it, in order for the democratic forces to prevail in that
country. Trade is one of many means to that end.

Indeed, today when we see NATO bombs causing the Serbs to rally behind
their dictator Milosevic, undermining the democratic forces within
Yugoslavia, how can we argue that a similar approach to Iran would be
beneficial for the democrats in Tehran? Why would Iranians react
differently to the West's isolation of Iran than the Serbs to the
West's isolation of Yugoslavia?

This is a classical problem that was first documented by the ancient
Chinese. In Chinese literature, dating from the second century BC, the
battle between "iron and salt" is spoken of. This refers to two
different tactics that can be used against a hostile enemy. How can
you best turn that enemy into a friend; through the iron (i.e.
defeating them through war and isolation) or through the salt (i.e.
integrating them through trade and other types of peaceful
interaction). History has shown us that the salt is in all ways
superior to the iron; isolation does not turn an enemy into a friend
whereas integration does. But it takes a lot of political courage to
do the right thing, and all leaders do not have this courage.

Overall, we can conclude that there are two types of leaders. Those
who truly understand the meaning and necessity of democracy and who
have the courage to embrace it through "the salt". And those for whom
democracy is just another word, since they lack the courage to chose
what history has shown to be the right path. Today, Italy has proven
its courage and wisdom. Tomorrow, President Clinton will hopefully
find inspiration in the courage demonstrated by the leaders of Italy.

www.iic.o

------------------------------

End of DNI-NEWS Digest - 29 Mar 1999 to 30 Mar 1999
***************************************************