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There are 7 messages totalling 665 lines in this issue.

Topics of the day:

1. Easing restrictions on U.S. visas for Iranians
2. Iran/Stratfor's Foundation: Iran/Greece/Armenia Pact.
3. Iran/Reuters: Khatami greets Saddam on Prophet's birthday
4. Iran/IRNA: FM Kharrazi clarifies iran's position on arrest of suspected
spies
5. Iran/Ruters: Rules on sales to Iran weeks away-State Department
6. Iran/AP: Russia, Iran Call U.S. Meddlers
7. Iran/Liberation (France): Iran: Du Plomb dans les Plumes/Of Lead in the
Feathers/Von der Leitung in den Federn

----------------------------------------------------------------------

Date: Thu, 1 Jul 1999 08:50:58 -0400
From: Farhad Abdolian <farhad.abdolian@TELLABS.COM>
Subject: Easing restrictions on U.S. visas for Iranians

By Frederick R. Troncone
June 23, 1999
The Iranian

On April 26, 1999, U.S. Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Asset
Control issued a new regulation which clears the path for U.S.
employers to sponsor Iranians resident in Iran for employment-based
immigrant and non-immigrant visas. This is welcome news to both U.S.
sponsors and to targeted Iranian beneficiaries living in Iran who have
been unable to process for U.S. visas since July 29, 1997.

More specifically, beginning April 26, 1999, U.S. employers are again
authorized to file necessary immigrant and/or non-immigrant visa
petitions for professional and skilled workers who are currently
resident in the Iran. The U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service
will now process the necessary filings for Iranian workers coming out
of Iran in the same manner as they process workers coming from other
countries around the world.

The exception to this resumption of normalcy in immigration processing
for Iranians applies to U.S. businesses which are either owned by the
government of Iran or U.S. businesses whose current ownership can be
traced back to Iran.

The U.S. does not maintain an embassy post in Iran. All U.S. interests
are handled through the Swiss Embassy in Tehran, and they do not have
authority to issue U.S. visas. Therefore, until U.S.-Iranian relations
improve to the next level, Iranians resident in Iran must continue to
process for their immigrant based visas through U.S. consulates in
Turkey (Istanbul and Ankara), or in the United Arab Emirates (Abu Dhabi
or Dubai).

While in theory it is possible for Iranians resident in Iran to file
for non-immigrant visas at any U.S. consulate, most non-immigrant visa
applicants should plan on processing in Turkey or in the UAE because it
is difficult for Iranians to obtain an entry visa for many countries
(even for the specific purpose of applying for a U.S. visa).

Regarding cases that were suspended by the U.S. consulates due to the
affect of the U.S. trade sanctions on or after July 29,1987, based upon
a recent exchange of communications with respective visa chiefs in
Turkey and UAE, the clear message is that affected businesses and/or
worker beneficiaries must bring their cases to the attention of the
U.S. consulate in order to restart the visa issuance process.

Also, given the passage of time after the INS' approval of the
underlying visa petition, we were further advised that it may be
necessary in some cases to update certain data/or documents in order to
resume processing and bring the matter to a successful conclusion.


Frederick R. Troncone is an American immigration lawyer and member of
the Iranian Trade Association. He he paid a ten-day visit to Iran this
month.


Sent via Deja.com http://www.deja.com/
Share what you know. Learn what you don't.

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 1 Jul 1999 19:25:55 -0500
From: "Aryo B. Pirouznia" <aryopirouznia@EMAIL.MSN.COM>
Subject: Iran/Stratfor's Foundation: Iran/Greece/Armenia Pact.

STRATFOR's
Global Intelligence Update
July 1, 1999

Greece Announces Pending Defense Pact with Iran and Armenia

Summary:

Greece and Iran have announced that they intend to sign a
tripartite military cooperation agreement, along with Armenia, as
early as July 12. Such an agreement would seriously undermine
NATO unity and strategy in the Balkans and the Caucasus,
exacerbate tensions between Greece and Turkey, isolate Azerbaijan
and Georgia and, by extension, Central Asia, and provide Russia
with a tremendous lever against NATO. As all involved intended,
it is not something NATO can ignore.

Analysis:

Addressing reporters in Tehran on June 28, Greek Defense Minister
Apostolos-Athanasios Tsokhatzopoulos announced that Greece, Iran,
and Armenia would soon sign a defense cooperation agreement, with
the goal of creating peace and stability in the region. The deal
will reportedly be signed at the three countries' first
trilateral defense meeting in Athens on July 12. Tsokhatzopoulos
emphasized that military cooperation with Iran was based on the
fundamental principles of international law and a shared interest
in regional peace and security, and was not directed at any other
country. He also added that his visit, the first to Iran by an
EU or NATO defense minister since 1979, was not as a
representative of NATO. Tsokhatzopoulos, who is in Iran on a four
day visit at the invitation of his Iranian counterpart Vice
Admiral Ali Shamkhani, has reportedly met with Iranian President
Mohammad Khatami and Majlis Speaker Ali Akhbar Nateq Nuri.

While Tsokhatzopoulos' statement has been widely reported in the
Iranian and Greek press, the Greek defense attache's office and
the political section at the Greek embassy in Washington declined
to comment on the report. Eventually, a press officer at the
embassy insisted that the July 12 meeting should involve only
discussions of general issues concerning cooperation and claimed
that he had no further information on the reported defense pact.
An official at the Armenian embassy claimed no knowledge of the
reported defense pact plans. He insisted that, while Armenia,
Greece, Georgia, and Iran had met to promote regional economic
cooperation, and while Armenia had a defense agreement with
Greece, he knew of no plans for such an agreement with Iran. A
press officer at the U.S. State Department said the department
had issued no official statement on the reported Greek-Armenian-
Iranian military pact.

Greece has a long history of relations with Iran and has
accelerated development of ties with both Iran and Armenia in the
last few years. Greece was one of the first countries to send a
defense attache to post-Soviet Armenia, and Greek officers have
assisted in the development of the Armenian military since 1992.
In June 1996, Greece signed a defense cooperation agreement with
Armenia, a move condemned by Ankara as pointedly anti-Turkey.
The first meeting of experts on trilateral cooperation between
Greece, Armenia, and Iran occurred in August of 1995. A second
meeting occurred in December of 1996, at which time deputy
foreign ministers from the three countries and Georgia signed a
memorandum of understanding on cooperation in the economic,
industrial, scientific, and technical arenas. At that time, the
deputy foreign ministers rejected any notion of military security
cooperation between their countries.

A series of committee and ministerial level meetings between
Greece, Iran, and Armenia continued through 1997 and 1998,
promoting cooperation in economic and commercial fields, and
establishing joint commissions on transport, postal service,
telecommunications, tourism, industry, technology, economics, and
energy. Officials from the three countries continued to insist
that the goal of their ties was to promote regional peace and
cooperation, and that their tripartite cooperation was neither
targeted at a particular country, nor exclusive of relations with
other countries. Meetings on economic cooperation continued into
1999, with Greek Deputy Foreign Minister Grigoris Niotis calling
in May for Georgia to join in Greek-Iranian-Armenian trilateral
cooperation.

Tsokhatzopoulos' announcement that the trilateral cooperation
between Greece, Iran, and Armenia would be expanded from the
economic arena to include security and defense cooperation is a
political bombshell, setting the stage for dramatic shifts in a
number of regional alignments. First and foremost, the claim
that this defense pact is not directed at any country is patent
nonsense. Explicitly intended as such or not, Ankara can only
view a new military alignment of its traditional foes Greece,
Armenia, and Iran -- with Russia as a silent partner -- as a
clear and present danger to Turkey. The agreement also raises
concerns in Azerbaijan, which remains in conflict with Armenia
over the Nagorno-Karabakh enclave and which has blamed Iran for
backing an assassination plot against President Heydar Aliyev.

The defense pact between Iran, strongly Russian-backed Armenia,
and NATO member Greece, and the tacit threat it poses to NATO
member Turkey, is a slap in the face of NATO. Greece has tried to
warn both NATO and Ankara of its concerns by building cooperation
with Russia. That was not enough, so it is moving on to Iran.
Greece was incensed that NATO not only ignored its security
concerns regarding Kosovo, but in fact exacerbated the threat
faced by Greece. Thanks to NATO's intervention, Greece finds
itself between a nascent Greater Albania and Turkey, which before
and since the crisis has grown increasingly involved with
supporting the Albanian military. Turkey assisted Albania in
rebuilding the naval base at Pashaliman and in developing the
Naval Academy at Vlore. Turkish commandos are currently training
Albania's Republican Guard. During meetings with top Albanian
officials on June 17 and 18, the Turkish Army's Director General
for Logistics, Maj. Gen. Dursun Bak, reiterated Turkey's
commitment to cooperation with the Albanian Army and vowed that
it will remain at the top of Turkey's list for assistance.

For Iran, Athens' desire for military cooperation offers a handy
lever in its relations with the West. Tehran always likes to
maintain a balanced international position by having lots of
irons in the fire. Iran's read of its strategic situation is that
it remains a strategic asset to a lot of people so long as it
does not get locked down in any exclusive alignment. The current
Iranian regime read the Shah's mistake as his locked down foreign
policy. Thus its entry into one relationship is merely the
preface for opening the door for another relationship. Therefore,
there is never a final Iranian position. On the other hand,
Tehran is very much in favor of strategic groupings that do not
preclude other relationships. For Iran, the nice thing about
Greece's overture is not that it torpedoes Iran's relationship
with the U.S., but that it puts the U.S. in the position of
suitor. Now the U.S. must do something to loosen up the situation
-- as must Turkey.

For Yerevan, aligning with Iran and Greece not only makes it
makes Armenia a bridge between the Greco-Iranian group and
Russia, but in doing so focuses NATO's attention on its conflict
with Azerbaijan. Clearly Armenia, Greece, and Iran wanted
Georgia in the military grouping, but as Greece went public
without Georgia, it appears Tbilisi is standing firm with its
GUUAM alliance with Azerbaijan, Ukraine, Moldova, and Uzbekistan,
and with its hopes for stronger ties with NATO. Tbilisi does not
see those goals furthered by a military pact with Armenia and
Iran.

Overall, a tripartite military pact between Greece, Iran, and
Armenia seriously undermines NATO unity and strategy in the
Balkans and the Caucasus. It exacerbates tensions between Greece
and Turkey -- already strained by Turkey's ties to Albania. It
isolates Azerbaijan and Georgia, threatening NATO's strategic and
economic interests in the two countries and in Central Asia. It
provides Russia with a tremendous lever, circumventing NATO's
would-be proxies in the GUUAM organization. It is not something
NATO can ignore.

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 1 Jul 1999 19:32:28 -0500
From: "Aryo B. Pirouznia" <aryopirouznia@EMAIL.MSN.COM>
Subject: Iran/Reuters: Khatami greets Saddam on Prophet's birthday

Khatami greets Saddam on Prophet's birthday-INA

10:04 a.m. Jul 01, 1999 Eastern

BAGHDAD, July 1 (Reuters) - Iranian leader Mohammed Khatami has
congratulated Iraqi President Saddam Hussein on Prophet Mohammed's birthday
despite recent exchanges of accusations between the two countries, the Iraqi
news agency INA reported on Thursday.

``On the advent of Prophet Mohammed's birthday, I extend my congratulations
to your excellency, and to Iraq's government and people,'' INA quoted a
letter sent by Khatami to Saddam as saying.

``I wish success for the Islamic world to achieve its objectives,'' the
letter read.

Iraq and Iran, who fought a ruinous war between 1980 and 1988, are still at
odds over a host of issues.

On Monday, Iraq's Deputy Prime Minister Tareq Aziz accused Iran of helping
elements to carry out sabotage acts inside Iraq.

In an interview with the Qatari Al-Jazeera satellite television, Aziz said
``such sabotage acts could happen since there is a neighbouring country
ready to harm its neighbour and it is able to infiltrate saboteurs across
1,200 km (745 mile)-long border.''

Iraq blamed Tehran for a bomb blast in Baghdad last month which killed seven
people.

Baghdad also accused Iran of firing three long-range missiles at an Iranian
exiled opposition group base inside Iraq in June.

Iran blamed Iraq for the murder in February of a prominent Shi'ite Moslem
spiritual leader, Mohammad Sadiq al-Sadr and his sons in the Iraqi holy city
of Najaf. Iraq denied the accusation.

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 1 Jul 1999 19:37:46 -0500
From: "Aryo B. Pirouznia" <aryopirouznia@EMAIL.MSN.COM>
Subject: Iran/IRNA: FM Kharrazi clarifies iran's position on arrest of
suspected spies

thr 016
Iran-kharrazi-suspected spies

kharrazi clarifies iran's position on arrest of suspected spies
london, july 1, irna

the dissemination of fictitious allegations about the arrest of suspected
spies is part of a heightened campaign by those opposed to the new perceived
image of iran, foreign minister
kamal kharrazi said thursday.

Their massive public disinformation in the last few weeks was
aimed at undermining the iranian government by promoting suspicion and
conflict at a global level, he said in a letter to british foreign
secretary robin cook.

Clarifying iran's position on the arrests, kharrazi said that the
individuals detained were 'merely suspects and no indictment or
verdict has been rendered against them'. The suspects, including muslims as
well as jews, were charged with illegally collecting confidential
information, including military
intelligence and providing it to foreigners, he said.

''the government of the islamic republic of iran, on its own and
in keeping with its obligations under the constitution, is committed
to protect the human rights of all its citizens, without
discrimination of any kind,'' the foreign minister said.
This included ensuring that these suspects ''receive a fair trial
with all guarantees of the due process of law.''

With regard to protests from zionist groups around the world
criticising the arrest of jews as though they were israelis, khazzari
said that the charges had ''no relation, whatsoever, to their
religious or political affiliation.''

Members of the jewish faith, like all other minorities in iran,
''enjoy full civil and political rights and liberties guaranteed by
the constitution for all iranian citizens,'' he said.

The iranian jewish community has been an active partner in iranian
society and attempts to attribute the arrest of a few people suspected
of espionage to their religious background can hardly be considered a
service to the jewish community.

In his letter, presented by iran's ambassador ali ansari in a
meeting with foreign office minister geoff hoon, kharrazi said that
calls for the release of the suspects, without completion of judicial
proceedings were 'unwarranted and unacceptable'. They were an 'affront' to
the sovereign right of the government to deal effectively and lawfully with
threats against the security of the
state and its nationals, he added.

The foreign minister warned that attempts to the normal and
constitutional function of iran's judicial system constituted not just
a 'blatant interference in the internal affairs of iran' but were also
'counterproductive'.

The islamic republic, he stressed, would ''ensure that these
suspects receive a fair trial with all guarantees of the due process
of law.''
hc/ah
end
::irna 01/07/99 19:13

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 1 Jul 1999 19:40:28 -0500
From: "Aryo B. Pirouznia" <aryopirouznia@EMAIL.MSN.COM>
Subject: Iran/Ruters: Rules on sales to Iran weeks away-State Department

Thursday July 1, 2:04 pm Eastern Time

Rules on sales to Iran weeks away-State Department

WASHINGTON, July 1 (Reuters) - The Clinton Administration is ``weeks'' away
from issuing new rules that would allow U.S. exporters to sell food and
medicine to Iran, Sudan and Libya, a top U.S. government official said on
Thursday.

``We are in the very, very final stages'' of issuing the rules, Stuart
Eizenstat, Undersecretary of State for Economic and Business Affairs, told a
Senate Foreign Relations committee. He would not give a specific date except
to say the regulations will be finalized in ``weeks.''

When probed by reporters, Eizenstat declined to speculate whether the rules
would be ready by the middle of July, during the second half of the month or
even by the end of July. Several weeks ago, the State Department official
said that he expected the rules would be released by the end of June.

Farmers have been anxiously awaiting the publication of the rules since the
Administration announced in late April that it would change its sanctions
policy to allow the sale of food and medicine to the three countries.

U.S. grain groups had been lobbying the White House to ease sanctions on
sales to the countries in an effort to boost lackluster farm exports and
decrease a huge surplus at home. But any sales have to wait until the new
rules are released.

Eizenstat declined to say on Thursday whether the final rules would require
exporters to get administration approval for each grain contract they
entered into, which exporters do not want, or if the administration would
pre-approve grain companies to make sales to specified buyers in the three
countries, the option exporters prefer.

``We believe the regulations, that will come out shortly, are ones the
agriculture community will be pleased with,'' he said.

Agriculture Department officials estimate that the easing of sanctions on
Iran, Libya and Sudan could boost U.S. wheat and corn exports by up to one
million tonnes each annually. Of the three countries, Iran is considered to
have the biggest potential.

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 1 Jul 1999 19:45:14 -0500
From: "Aryo B. Pirouznia" <aryopirouznia@EMAIL.MSN.COM>
Subject: Iran/AP: Russia, Iran Call U.S. Meddlers

Russia, Iran Call U.S. Meddlers

Thursday, July 1, 1999; 5:34 p.m. EDT

MOSCOW (AP) -- The speaker of Russia's lower house of parliament and Iran's
interior minister on Thursday accused the United States of meddling in
Russian-Iranian relations, the Interfax news agency reported.

Russia's Gennady Seleznyov and Iran's Abdolvahed Mousavi Lari were referring
to U.S. efforts to exert influence in the Caspian Sea region, where five
bordering countries still haven't decided how massive oil reserves will be
divided up and exported.

Washington has lobbied hard for a new pipeline from the Caspian that would
avoid its perennial rival, Iran, and Russia.

The United States ``tries to obstruct Russian-Iranian cooperation and
resorts to double or triple standards to attain benefits for itself,'' said
Seleznyov and Lari, according to the parliamentary press service.

Lari, on the last day of a three-day visit, also met Thursday with Foreign
Minister Igor Ivanov.

Iranian Foreign Minister Kamal Kharrazi sent Ivanov a message rejecting
international appeals to free 13 Iranians arrested on charges of spying for
Israel and the United States, Interfax reported.

U.S., German and Israeli officials have called for the prisoners' release,
saying they include rabbis and religious teachers. If convicted, they could
be executed.

``Any attempts at influencing a routine and legal process of the Iranian
judicial system are gross interference in Iran's internal affairs. Such
attempts are counterproductive,'' Kharrazi said.

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 1 Jul 1999 20:55:18 -0500
From: "Aryo B. Pirouznia" <aryopirouznia@EMAIL.MSN.COM>
Subject: Iran/Liberation (France): Iran: Du Plomb dans les Plumes/Of Lead in
the Feathers/Von der Leitung in den Federn

English and GermanTranslations of Part 1 of 2:
Liberation News Paper (France) of 7/01/1999
Note: Part 2/2 will be posted on 7/02/1999

Original French Text (Below) and at:
http://www.liberation.com/livres/99juillet/0701abdolah.html


Iran: Of lead in the Feathers

Very special censure in Iran: the books are not prohibited but the authors
are killed.
Meetings with two " survivors ", Ahmad Chamlou close to Teheran, and Kader
Abdolah in Amsterdam.

By JEAN-Pierre PERRIN
July 1st, 1999

It is an Iranian paradox: since the election of president Mohammed Khatami,
never the writers were not also free to express themselves and never they
were not threatened as much.

Free because the censure was slackened even if closings of newspapers and
the lawsuits against the journalists do not cease multiplying (1).

Threatened because three intellectuals and a couple of militant opponents
for the freedom of expression were assassinated the last autumn by a death
squad directly financed by certain clans of the Iranian secret service (2).

It is true that the Association of the Iranian writers, prohibited since
1981 by the Islamic mode and who has as a claim " the freedom of expression
without restriction nor exception ", could recently obtain the authorization
to reconstitute itself (Release of June 11) but it is a quite fragile
victory, still provisional and obtained with the snatch of the Minister for
the Islamic Orientation.
Regularly, the persons in charge of this association are in addition
violently taken with part by the preserving press which treats them
blasphemers and apostates, very serious charges because they make legitimate
to their assassinations by the groups more the extremists.

" Black ", true lists or distort, authors to be assassinated circulate
besides currently.
" Under the mode of Shah, my work be threaten but not my life (...). Under
the mode Islamic, on the contrary, my work have never meet some serious
obstacle but my life, as writer independent, and those of some other, have
be constantly put in danger by the secret service secrets or by some group
clandestine fanatic ", declare lately the writer Darius Ashouri, at the time
of a seminar with Caen.

Another significant evolution in Iran is the importance of the debate in
progress on separation between policy and religion, debate which was
impossible a few years ago. Even within the Islamic intellectuals, a
current, represented by the philosophers Abdolkarim Sorouch and Mohammed
Modjtahed-Shabestari, does not hesitate any more to assert this separation
like condition of the input of their country in modernity.

Vis-a-vis with the institutional censure and the formidable machines of
propaganda that are the radio and the television, which was until producing
series televised anti-intellectuals where certain writers were introduced
like agents of Mossad, the reflexion of the Iranian intellectuals still
weighs very little. In fact, as underlines it the writer Ali Ashraf
Darvishian, their future is " inseparable " from that of the democracy in
Iran: " They are related in a determining way one to the other. "

1) In April, 320 Iranian journalists wrote a letter with president Khatami
asking of the legal guarantees for the exercise of their profession. They
recalled that during the past year eight daily newspapers or weekly
magazines had been constrained to close " under empty pretexts ".

2) Actuellement, 27 people are under the bolts, of which several persons in
charge of the ministry for the Information.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------

Englisch und GermanTranslations von Teil 1 von 2:
Befreiungnachrichten Papier (Frankreich) von 7/01/1999 Anmerkung:
Der Teil 2/2 wird auf 7/02/1999 bekanntgegeben

Ursprünglicher französischer Text (unten) und an:
http://www.liberation.com/livres/99juillet/0701abdolah.html


Der Iran: Von der Leitung in den Federn
Ganz spezielle Kritik im Iran: die Bücher werden nicht verboten, aber die
Autoren werden beendet. Sitzungen mit zwei " Überlebende ", Ahmad Chamlou
nah an Teheran und Kader Abdolah in Amsterdam.

Durch JEAN-Pierre PERRIN Juli 1., 1999

Es ist ein iranisches Paradox: seit der Wahl des Präsidenten Mohammed
Khatami, nie waren die Verfasser nicht auch frei, sich auszudrücken und nie
wurden sie nicht so viel bedroht.

Geben Sie frei, weil die Kritik nachgelassen wurde, selbst wenn closings der
Zeitungen und der Prozesse gegen die Journalisten nicht aufhören zu
multiplizieren (1).

Bedroht, weil drei Intellektuelle und ein Paar der militanten Konkurrenten
für die Freiheit des Ausdruckes der letzte Herbst durch einen Todessquad
direkt finanziert durch bestimmte clans des iranischen geheimen Services
ermordet wurden (2).

Es ist daß die Verbindung der iranischen Verfasser zutreffend, verboten seit
1981 durch den islamischen Modus und wer hat als Anspruch " die Freiheit des
Ausdruckes ohne Beschränkung noch Ausnahme ", die Ermächtigung vor kurzem
erreichen könnte, sich wieder herzustellen (Freigabe von Juni 11) aber es
ist ein ziemlich zerbrechlicher Sieg, ruhiges provisorisches und erreicht
mit dem Snatch des Ministers für die islamische Lagebestimmung. Regelmäßig
werden die Personen verantwortlich für diese Verbindung zusätzlich heftig
mit Teil durch die konservierende Presse, die sie blasphemers und apostates
behandelt, sehr ernste Ladungen genommen, weil sie gesetzmaßig zu ihren
Ermordungen durch die Gruppen mehr die Extremisten bilden.

" Schwärzen ", ausrichten Liste oder verzerren, Autor zu sein ermorden
verteilen außer aktuell " unter d Modus von Shah, mein Arbeit sein bedrohen
aber nicht mein Lebensdauer (...). unter d Modus islamisch, auf d Gegenteil,
mein Arbeit haben nie Treffen einig ernst Hindernis aber mein Lebensdauer,
als Verfasser unabhängig, und von einig ander, haben sein konstant setzen in
Gefahr durch d geheim Service Geheimnis oder durch einig Gruppe heimlich
Fanatiker ", erklären spät d Verfasser Darius Ashouri, zu der Zeit ein
Seminar mit Caen.

Vor eine andere bedeutende Entwicklung im Iran ist der Wert der Debatte, die
auf Trennung zwischen Politik und Religion, in Bewegung ist Debatte, die
einigen Jahren unmöglich war. Sogar innerhalb der islamischen
Intellektuellen, zögert ein Strom, dargestellt von den Philosophen
Abdolkarim Sorouch und Mohammed Modjtahed-Shabestari, nicht irgendwie mehr,
diese Trennung wie Zustand des Input ihres Landes im modernity zu erklären.

Angesichts mit der Institutionskritik und der formidable Maschinen von
Propaganda, die der Radio sind und das Fernsehen, das bis das Produzieren
von Serie war, Anti-Intellektuelle im Fernsehen übertrug, in denen bestimmte
Verfasser wie Mittel von Mossad eingeführt wurden, wiegt die Reflexion der
iranischen Intellektuellen noch sehr wenig. Tatsächlich, wie unterstreicht
ist sie der Verfasser Ali Ashraf Darvishian, ihre Zukunft von der der
Demokratie im Iran " untrennbar ": " sie werden in Verbindung gestanden in
einer Bestimmung Weise eine auf dem anderen ",

1) im April, schrieben 320 iranische Journalisten einen Brief mit dem Bitten
des Präsidenten Khatami der zugelassenen Garantien um die Übung ihres
Berufs. Sie riefen wieder auf, daß während des letzten Jahres acht tägliche
Zeitungen oder wöchentliche Zeitschriften begrenzt worden waren, um " unter
leeren Vorwänden " zu schließen.

2) sind Actuellement, 27 Leute unter den Schraubbolzen, von denen einige
Personen verantwortlich für das Ministerium zu der Information.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------

Liberation du 1er Juillet 1999 Part 1/2
Le 2/2 sera expedie le 2/07/1999

Texte integrale:
http://www.liberation.com/livres/99juillet/0701abdolah.html


Iran, du plomb dans les plumes

Censure très spéciale en Iran: On n'enterdit pas les livres mais on tue les
auteurs. Rencontres avec deux «survivants», Ahmed Chamlou près de Téhéran,
et Kader Abdolah à Amsterdam.

Par JEAN-PIERRE PERRIN, le 1er/7/99


C'est un paradoxe iranien: depuis l'élection du président Mohammed Khatami,
jamais les écrivains n'ont été aussi libres s'exprimer et jamais ils n'ont
été autant menacés.

Libres parce que la censure s'est relâchée même si les
fermetures de journaux et les procès contre les journalistes ne cessent de
se multiplier (1).

Menacés parce que trois intellectuels et un couple
d'opposants militants pour la liberté d'expression ont été assassinés
l'automne dernier par un escadron de la mort directement commandité par
certains clans des services secrets iraniens (2).

Il est vrai que l'Association des écrivains iraniens, interdite depuis 1981
par le régime
islamique et qui a pour revendication «la liberté d'expression sans
restriction ni exception», a pu obtenir récemment l'autorisation de se
reconstituer (Libération du 11 juin) mais c'est une victoire bien fragile,
encore provisoire et obtenue à l'arraché du ministre de l'Orientation
islamique.

Régulièrement, les responsables de cette association sont de
surcroît violemment pris à partie par la presse conservatrice qui les traite
de blasphémateurs et d'apostats, accusations très graves parce qu'elles
rendent légitimes leurs assassinats par les groupes les plus extrémistes.

Des «listes noires», vraies ou fausses, d'auteurs à assassiner circulent
d'ailleurs actuellement. «Sous le régime du Shah, mon travail était menacé
mais pas ma vie (...). Sous le régime islamique, au contraire, mes travaux
n'ont jamais rencontré de sérieux obstacles mais ma vie, comme écrivain
indépendant, et celles de quelques autres, ont été constamment mises en
danger par les services secrets ou par des groupes clandestins fanatiques»,
déclarait dernièrement l'écrivain Darius Ashouri, lors d'un séminaire à
Caen.

Une autre évolution importante en Iran est l'importance du débat en
cours sur la séparation entre politique et religion, débat qui était
impossible il y a quelques années. Même au sein des intellectuels
islamiques, un courant, représenté par les philosophes Abdolkarim Sorouch et
Mohammed Modjtahed-Shabestari, n'hésite plus à revendiquer cette séparation
comme condition de l'entrée de leur pays dans la modernité.

Face à la censure institutionnelle et les formidables machines de propagande
que sont
la radio et la télévision, laquelle a été jusqu'à produire des séries
télévisée anti-intellectuels où certains écrivains étaient présentés comme
des agents du Mossad, la réflexion des intellectuels iraniens pèse encore
très peu. En fait, comme le souligne l'écrivain Ali Ashraf Darvishian, leur
avenir est «inséparable» de celui de la démocratie en Iran: «Ils sont liés
d'une manière déterminante l'un à l'autre.»

1) En avril, 320 journalistes iraniens ont écrit une lettre au président
Khatami demandant des garanties légales pour l'exercice de leur profession.
Ils rappelaient qu'au cours de l'année écoulée huit quotidiens ou
hebdomadaires avaient été contraints de fermer «sous des prétextes vides».

2) Actuellement, 27 personnes sont sous les verrous, dont plusieurs
responsables du ministère des Renseignements.

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End of DNI-NEWS Digest - 30 Jun 1999 to 1 Jul 1999
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